In one of its first official acts, the South Korean National Assembly passed the National Traitors Act in 1948, which among other measures, outlawed the Workers Party of South Korea. In the fighting up to 100 policemen and civilians were killed. She studied Korean history, mainly focusing on modern Korean history at Korea University. responsibilities related to the tragic massacre on Jeju Island. Members distributed leaflets and demonstrated. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. In 1992, South Korean President Roh Tae Woo's government sealed up a cave on Mount Halla, where the remains of massacre victims had been discovered. S.Korean scholars, activists visit U.S. to call for shared responsibility for massacre on Jeju Island, In the late 1940s, as tensions over a soon-to-be divided Korean Peninsula simmered, a protest on Jeju Island was ruthlessly suppressed, claiming as many as 30,000 lives.Now a group of scholars and clergy from the island are endeavoring to raise awareness of the U.S. government and military's role in the incident.From March 24-29, the group visited Washington, D.C. to submit the Jeju 4.3 Incident Investigation Report. On March 1, 1947, police fired on demonstrators commemorating the 28th year after the March 1st independence movement opposing Japanese, North Korea’s threatening message to the US is a covert nudge for negotiations, Expert roundup: What North Korea’s Eighth Party Congress says about the future, North Korea calls the US its ‘biggest enemy’ and vows to keep developing nukes. The immensely biodiverse Jeju Island is a most inappropriate location for a deep-water port to host highly armed U.S. and Korean Navy war ships. Rebels also burned polling centers for the upcoming election and attacked political opponents and their families.They then issued an appeal urging the local population to rise against the American military government. “From the Archives: A quarrel between US military personnel results in the arrest of 200 prostitutes during the Jeju Massacre” This page is subject to change based on further research Officer Lee Mun-gyu was dispatched to Jeju Island from the mainland Chungnam Province Police Agency on Feb. 23, 1947, along with 99 other police reserves. The Outbreak of the Jeju 4.3 Uprising and the Response of the USAMGIK At dawn of April 3, 1948, beacons lit on Mt. Immediately after North Korea invaded the South across the 38th Parallel on June 25, 1950, the South Korean military ordered "preemptive apprehension" of suspected leftists nationwide. ... 80, who lived through a massacre in the island's northern Bukchon Village. Outraged, the people of Jeju attacked 12 police stations. In late fall of 1948, the rebels began openly siding with Kim Il Sung by flying North Korean flags.[3]. Join the influential community of members who rely on NK News original news and in-depth reporting. For 50 years, successive governments in Seoul silenced the Korean people’s memories of systematic murder, rape and torture. Truth-Finding Efforts and Recommendations. In 2008, bodies of victims of a massacre were discovered in a mass grave near Jeju International Airport. The Seoul government also sent several hundred Northwest Youth Association members, a group of anti-communist North Korean refugees as part of a paramilitary force. South Korea's Truth Commission reported 14,373 victims, 86 percent at the hands of the security forces and 13.9 percent at the hands of armed rebels, and estimated that the total death toll was as high as 30,000. It was a chaotic period right after the independence from Japan and the Korean Peninsula was in the middle of the Cold War. Right after the Korean War broke out in 1950, preventive detention swept across Korea and Jeju was no exception. I visited my hometown of JeJu Island, South Korea in 2014 to conduct research for The MAGO Project, as well as work on a documentary film about the 1948 Jeju 4.3 (April 3rd) Massacre, a joint action by the South Korean and United States militaries in which approximately 30,000 villagers across the … In March of 1950, North Korea sent thousands of armed insurgents to resuscitate the guerrilla fighting on Jeju, but by this time the South Korean army had become particularly adept at counterinsurgency and quashed the new uprising in only a few weeks. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article In the post-WWII years, the three major nations of the Far East—China, Korea and Japan—all struggled with the rise of Communism; in China, the Maoists won and established a Communist government, in Japan the communist Red Guards were suppressed, in Korea a massive war was fought and the country was divided. Thousands were detained on Jeju, then sorted into four groups, labeled A, B, C, and D, based on the security risks each was perceived to pose. For almost fifty years after the uprising, it was a crime punishable by beatings, torture and a lengthy prison sentence if any South Korean even mentioned the events of the Jeju uprising. The arrest of 2,500 party cadres on Jeju and the killing of at least three of them broke up the planned demonstrations. They also attacked political opponents and their families, and issued an appeal urging the local population to rise up and liberate their country from the “American cannibals and their running dogs.”. Lee, Hideko Takayama. Translation of the text of the stone monument to Yeongnam Village (pictured above), one of many villages destroyed during the Jeju Uprising: The massacre was largely ignored by the Korean government for many years. “The Jeju Island massacre of April 3, 1948, is the ‘red room,’ or the unspeakable history of our past. It has numerous waterfalls and natural wonders. He met several times with rebel leader Kim Sam-dal but they could not reach any agreement. Former Korean President Roh Moo Kyum designated Jeju as “Jeju Island of Global Peace” when he formally apologized for the April 1948 massacre. Suppression of the rebellion by the South Korean army was brutal, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths, destroying many villages on the island, and sparking rebellions on the Korean mainland. At many locations around Jeju, the sites where citizens were killed have been marked with simple towers of volcanic stones. You will receive a link to create a new password via email. The rebellion included the mutiny of several hundred members of the South Korean 11th Constabulary Regiment and lasted until May 1949, although small isolated pockets of fighting continued during the Korean War into 1953.[1]. Of course, Jeju Islandis still unquestionably beautiful, but when I heard that most of the famous tourist attraction sites were once the graveyards of many souls, I was shocked by the forgotten history, the Jeju April 3 Incident. George Wehrfritz, B.J. Jeju was no exception, except that the fight turned exceptionally bloody. Jeju Island is the largest island in the southernmost part of South Korea. [2] Many of the Jeju people were more inspired by their perception of a future promoted by Kim Il Sung in North Korea than by the capitalist version taking shape in South Korea, and in Japan. In hopes that it would lead to a wider Korean protest, islanders cut phone cables, destroyed railroads, and attacked police stations. For decades afterwards the South Korean military dictatorship silenced any mention of the 3.4 killings on Jeju Island. American and Soviet armies stayed separated at the 38th Parallel by a prearranged agreement between United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin. People who were identified as targets of preventive detention were dragged by soldie... Read More arrow_forward. Lee, Hideko Takayama. This essay seeks to go along side this movement by reviewing some historical facts. In the late 1940s, as tensions over a soon-to-be divided Korean Peninsula simmered, a protest on Jeju Island was ruthlessly suppressed, claiming as many as 30,000 lives. Fearing that the elections would further reinforce division, guerrilla fighters of the Workers' Party of South Korea (WPSK) reacted violently, attacking local police and rightist youth groups stationed on Jeju Island. These men were considered by locals as right-wing thugs. Immediately after North Koreainvaded the South across the 38th Parallel on June 25, 1950, the South Korean military ordered "preemptive apprehension" of suspected leftists nationwide. Prior to the end of World War II, this 15th-century pavilion built to train the mind, body and souls of soldiers, was where Jeju citizens protested and held freedom rallies against Japanese occupation. To me, Jeju used to be a beautiful island where everybody wanted to visit for their either romantic or exciting vacation. Ha-young Choi was an NK News correspondent based in Seoul. The detested Japanese occupation of Korea, which began in 1910, finally ended with Japan's defeat in World War II on August 15, 1945. The April 3rd Mass Uprising, also frequently referred as the Jeju 4.3 Incident or the Jeju Massacre, was the brutal suppression by the Korean government against armed rebellion in Jeju during the period of April 3, 1948 until September 21, 1954. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Halla and the nearby volcanic cones, heralding the start of an armed rebellion. 2. The guerrillas created base camps on Mt. Wehrfritz, George, B.J. The National Committee for the Truth About the Jeju April 3 Incident, Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure. The Korea Times: Conservatives Downgrade Jeju Uprising in 1948, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Jeju_Uprising&oldid=1011242, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. At the U.N. Please enter your username or email address. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); Jeju's isolation had always meant the Seoul government was a distant influence compared to other areas of Korea. Prevailing sentiment on Jeju was that the local government and police forces were made up mostly of those who had readily collaborated with the Japanese occupation, and there was unrest at heavy taxation of agricultural and fishing commodities reminiscent of the Joseon Dynasty. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply. The event had been largely ignored by the government. T he volcanic Jeju Island is now a popular honeymoon destination in South Korea, but has a darker history that has only relatively recently begun to be openly discussed: a little over seventy years ago it was the scene of a massacre. Jeju Island marks 70th anniversary of 1948 massacres . In April 2006, President Roh Moo-hyun officially apologized to the people of Jeju Province for the 4.3 Massacre, and announced that the government had granted the long-held wishes of Jeju's people to gain administrative autonomy. On November 14, 1947, the United Nations passed UN Resolution 112, calling for a general election over the whole Korean peninsula under the supervision of a UN commission. We instead recommend using Chrome, Edge, Firefox or Safari. In the late 1940s, as tensions over a soon-to-be divided Korean Peninsula simmered, a protest on Jeju Island was ruthlessly suppressed, claiming as many as 30,000 lives. Farming communities between the coast and the heights became the primary battle-zone. On August 30, 1950, according to a written order by a senior intelligence officer in the South Korean Navy, the Jeju police were instructed to "execute all those in groups C and D by firin… The NK Pro, NK News and KCNA Watch websites do not support private mode or incognito browsing. In Jeju, it is referred to as the "4.3 Uprising" or "4.3 Massacre" (4.3 referring to April 3); between 30,000 and 60,000 people were killed in fighting between factions. However, the Soviet Union, occupying the northern part of the peninsula, refused to comply with the UN resolution and denied the UN Commission access. What today is an island of restoration and tourism was the site of innocent civilian execution. By October 1948, the rebel army consisted of approximately 4,000 combatants, and although most were poorly armed they scored several minor victories over the Army. Residents of Jeju had been some of the most ardent resisters of Japanese rule and supporters of an independent Korea. If the Jeju Massacre had a ground zero, it would be Gwandeokjeong Pavilion Square in old Jeju City. The "4.3 Incident" refers to a particularly bloody incident in 1948 between Jeju residents and authorities. On August 17, 1949, the rebel leadership of the movement following the killing of major rebel leader Yi Tuk-ku. An estimated 70 percent of the island’s villages burned down. Hallasan and the government forces held the coastal towns. “The April 3 rd Uprising and Massacre” is a tragic series of incidents that happened between 1 March 1947 and 21 September 1954 on Jeju Island. 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