Modern trends for standardization Current orthography represents two major centers of standardization: British and American English. Having earned a BA in linguistics some time ago, and having made use of a lot of linguistic information in 23 years as a speech/language therapist, I have to disagree with a number of others who have answered this question. THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION ON LINGUISTIC NORMS THE INFLUENCE OF LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION ON LINGUISTIC NORMS Bartsch, Renate 1985-06-01 00:00:00 * I thank Bjorn Jernudd, Monsur Musa, and K . The effects of language standardization on acceptance and use are explored using the four constructs of Venkatesh et al.’s (2003) Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) – effort expectancy, performance expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions – as a conceptual framework and guide in the analysis. Hence in 1919, a Basque Language Academy, Euskaltzaindia, was established with the primary aim of formulating a standardwritten language. Located in northern Spain, the community saw themselves as autonomous given their diverse historical roots and cultural groups within the country. Although standardising language may improve efficiency for the general population, there will be some who fall short of this new-found utility. by Sally Johnson and Tommaso M. Milani. Language Standardisation:Basque Recovery II. Formulation: setting the goals of the policy. Unsurprisingly, literacy is still highly regarded today as the leading institutional marker for a nation’s development. Particularly the older, conservative delegates believed it to be a pointless addition of an alphabet that could not be pronounced (Elkartea 34). New versions with new features will be released, and software teams will need to make important decisions. The first is an elaboration of function, where people of higher social standing perceive this language form to be more valuable and important than other variations. “Political correctness’: The politics of culture and language.” Discourse &. Lastly, a writing system is established to prescribe this language (along with official dictionaries and guidebooks). Hence the prestige and legitimacy of a ‘standard’ does not in the first instance, as In line with the said, the stands of several linguists about the a/s phenomena are presented as the However, this ‘superiority’ may be a social construct, attributed to certain language forms because of the social standing of their speakers (Milroy 532). Among, 431 publications made between 1967 and 1977, only 3.3% of books published in 1967 had incorporated the new rules of spelling, declined and conjugated forms. Deumert (2004) states that linguistically- oriented approach to language standardization have often concentrated on the identification of the regional and/or social dialects which form the phonological, morphological, They enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and discrimination against other forms of language. Formulation, Codification, Elaboration, and Implementation. ... View Item; JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Development in these areas create pressure to establish regularity in other areas, such as currency and language, to facilitate and increase efficiency in communication between countries. It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. The intentionality of reforming the spelling was not to simply standardise the language but to also unify all Basque under a common understanding. “Language Ideologies and the Consequences of Standardisation”. Actually, any language varies according to , the nature of the society, what kind of people, and their attitudes. Standardization. There are different regional dialects, class dialects, situationalvarieties. As such, standard forms of language can differ at different points in time, even within the same society. Oure language is also so dyuerse in it selfe that the commen maner of spekynge in Englysshe of some contre can skante [= scarcely] be vnderstondid in som other contre of the same lond (Lydgate, 1530) And certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre [ far ] from that whiche was vsed and spoken whan I … Selection. Ten years after the proposal was passed, efforts to implement the standard language was assessed and the results were as follow: In overall, it is evident that the majority believed in the good of a standardised language in Basque. The language of Basque is a language form derived from Basque Country. It is an ongoing historical process that develops a standard written and oral language to be practiced by everyone in a society. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to impose one dialect or variety as a standard. standardization definition: 1. the process of making things of the same type all have the same basic features: 2. the process…. Language Ideologies and Media Discourse: Texts, Practices, Politics, ed. With that perspective, we shall move to a unique, nation-wide territory where smaller-scale language standardisation took place: Basque Country. Charlemagne mandated it for his whole empire. An Example of Standardization and Divergence: Latin, The Creation and Enforcement of Language Standards, Definition and Examples of Acrolects in Language, What You Should Know About Creole Language, Definition and Examples of Linguistic Prestige, Key Events in the History of the English Language, Definition and Examples of Dialect Leveling, Standard English Definitions and Controversies, Definition and Examples of Codification in English. However, as the use of ‘h’ were valued by the northern Basque writers and speakers, Mitxelena saw the importance of its inclusion in the standard language. They believed that the promotion of the standard was “essential to turn Basque into a modern instrument”, 61% of the 196 Basque writers that were interviewed used the standard language in their writings for they believed in the “need to convert the language into an instrument of culture”. Indeed, the process of standardisation is an on-goingone,and a whole range of forces are at work. Overall, the whole process aims to create a ‘melting pot’ environment, homogenising a certain culture that comes with the language. It is important to note that these stages are hypothetical, and can sometimes overlap with one another. The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. These steps or stages in corpus development are also seen as paralleled by policy development, and some analysts enumerate these steps in language policy planning (Eastman 1983:12): . Establishing a standard language ultimately shapes the standard ‘reality’ of the people (Fairclough 203-4). Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, non-instinctive and conventional. These discourses emphasize the desirability of uniformity and correctness in language use, the primacy of writing and the very idea of a national language as the only legitimate language of the speech community...", John E. Joseph, 1987; quoted by Darren Paffey in "Globalizing Standard Spanish." Deumert, Ana. In sociolinguistics, language variety—also called lect—is a general term for any distinctive form of a language or linguistic expression. He had stressed on the fact that “Basque should move towards unification, and unification should commence chiefly with matters of form” (Elkartea 36). Therefore, it is evident that it does not represent the consensus of the United Kingdom. Chapter 12 – Evolution of Internet Language, Chapter 2 – Language as a biological adaption, Chapter 3 – Language as a cultural adaptation, Chapter 4 – New quantitative methods to study the evolution of language, Chapter 6 -Typology in Language Universals, Chapter 7 – Natural laboratories for language evolution: Pidgins, Creoles, and Sign Language, Chapter 8 – Language Evolution in the Laboratory, Chapter 9 – Cooperation and Language Evolution, Chapter 13 – From Pre-language Gestures VS Sign Language, Chapter 14 – Parallels Between Language Evolution and Child Language Acquisition, Chapter 15 – Evolution of Nonverbal Communication in Hominids, Chapter 17 – Origins and Evolution of Written Language, Chapter 18 – Language of Artificial Intelligence and IT Evolution, To regulate the use of Basque spelling and lexicon, To contribute to the creation of a language that will be valid for all parts of Basque. What is language standardisation? Journal of, Thomas, Tiffany. Once it has gained general approval, the standard language is rigorously maintained through several means. This means that the mean of the attribute becomes zero and the resultant distribution has a unit standard deviation. Leith, Dick. The process of standardisation involves both ‘ruler-makers’ and ‘rule-breakers’; the former makes the rules for spelling and pronunciation, in addition to selecting/eliminating the meaning of commonly used words. Some features of this site may not work without it. Furthermore, it creates a sort of ignorance towards other dialects and ways of speaking. Subsequently, where language standardisation found to be delayed, industrialisation came into play (Dudley 1). Elkartea, Garabide. The goal of standardization is to ensure uniformity to certain practices within the industry. In the end, Mitxelena reasoned that “the young are always right” (Elkartea 36), and since the young writers were in favour of the letter ‘h’, the spelling reformation was ruled. 3.3 The Process of Language Standardization Standardization is a necessary and vital process in any language. Learning about the standardization of languages, or how languages get formalized and codified in one specific way, offers insight into the overlap between linguistics, culture and politics. 90% of 570 language educators used the standard language daily (viz. For instance, the use of double negatives – ‘that won’t do you no good’ – is deemed confusing, redundant and incorrect by the masses. Thus, it is crucial to understand that the standard language forms are not universal, and they can still have varieties across different regions. Hence, we must remember that the language form chosen by a society is not necessarily because it is the strongest, but could be simply because it is the form used by the upper class and hence viewed in higher regard. Is the process of development of a standard for written and/or oral language It occurs in a specific manner that depends on the community and the social, historical and geographic aspects involved. creating a type-able Unicode). Therefore, language standardisation is never stagnant or complete, but will continue revising itself as long as the language is still in use. The growth in industrial technologies signified a great deal of cooperation between individuals of different skillsets, and effective collaboration could only occur when both parties speak and write the same standard language. Thus, keep in mind that language standardisation is a conscious course of development that produces both good and bad effects. The British standard held sway throughout the world until very recently, when some other countries began to first accept and then to teach American orthography and lexical choices. Codification:. Received Pronunciation. Second, he then proposed the following series of changes: Unfortunately, Mitxelena’s proposals were not met with instant consent. The Basque case study is significant not only for the fact that it is relatively recent but that it also reflects Milroy & Milroy’s conception that a language standard is not an end-product to be achieved, but rather, it is a process of development that the society embarks on. Alcuin brought in 'good Latin' because it came from books; it didn't have all the 'problems' that came from a language being spoken as a native tongue. The confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a territory serves as one explanation for the evolution of language. Language educators were also deeply motivated to teach the standard Basque. British Library, n.d.. http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/find-out-more/received-pronunciation/. Following, the society must then express a desire for uniformity by filtering out any irregularities and establishing a consistent communication system between individuals. Hence, the dispersal of a language must be credited to its respective speakers—people, and their practices and customs—and not the core of language itself. Updated January 08, 2019. Standardization in language, as distinct from script or notation, comea out of these two features, variation in speech and association of language with overtones of social and personal origins. James and Lesley Milroy expressed that language standardisation does not symbolise an actual end-product, but rather, a significant process with no completion. Thus, we should remember that language standardisation is a process aimed at creating one standard, cohesive language in a society, although (due to the dynamic nature of society) it generally does not achieve this goal. Chinese languages, principal language group of eastern Asia, belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family. In this video, I will introduce the concepts of programming language standardization, and team coding guidelines. Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects … We use language and that language is a part of society. Vol. language standardization, ther efore, is less about language itself as function and structure, than it is about ideologies and hegemonies about lang uage, or what is called “language ideology”. Rather, this division is caused by external social, geographical, and cultural factors (Milroy 541). Such system is then regarded as the absolute legitimate and “correct” standard of language, and hence, is esteemed above everyday speakers of the language. Crystal, David. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. A standard language is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication. The chosen one is then accepted by the dominant clans in society, who have the power to control how and where this language is standardized and diffused. Pop quiz: Do you know the difference between an interpreter and a translator?It’s a foundational definition in the language industry, but the two can be easy to mix up. Structural Features of Language and Language Use ... of standardization in technical set-tings. Accessed 10 March 2017. (domains, timetables, territorial extent, etc.) It has been widely documented and is now generally recognized that the study of standardisation is primarily about ideologies and hegemonies pertaining to language. With increasing literacy rates to match this language demand, citizens could advance from primary to secondary level, manufacturing-related occupations. Standardization or standardization is a process that takes place in stages; was not completely finished. Another interesting point relates to the superiority of specific language forms. If a language form is used by the upper class, society automatically esteems it over other forms and views it as the supreme option, even though it does not necessarily allow us to communicate or express ourselves better than other forms. In addition, standard languages are also discursive projects, and standardization processes are typically accompanied by the development of specific discourse practices. Fairclough, Norman. Standardization, it is argued, is necessary in order to facilitate communications, to make possible the establishment of an agreed orthography, and to provide a uniform form for school books. Language varieties gain prestige when its speakers possess high social standing. "Standardization is concerned with linguistic forms (corpus planning, i.e. The standard language is a planned and designed unitary referential variant the purpose of which is to provide cultural, political, and social cohesion on the territory on which it is official. One point to note is that human language does not necessarily need to divide into different forms. Psychology Press, 1997. The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. First, he nominated the central dialect as the standard language of the country as he believed it to be “where the heart of [the] country is, and because it has played a dynamic role in the history of [their] literature” (Elkartea 32). Instead of appointing one language form as the standard, Joanes Leizarrage developed a new language – one that was a combination of the various dialects he observed – that he believed would be understood by the general population (Elkartea 25). Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Accessed 6 March 2017. Chinese exists in a number of varieties that are popularly called dialects but that are usually classified as separate languages by scholars. Some might feel that the standard form of a society was chosen because it is superior to all other options. Societies themselves pick their own standard forms of language, and hence, different societies in different places, and of different cultures, can all pick vastly different (or even somewhat similar) language forms to adhere to. The concern surrounding language variation dates back to the 16th century, where the first attempt for language standardisation was made. Prof Feng’s presentation put this kind of standardization policy in context, explaining that minority language standardization itself follows a standard (and not necessarily responsive) procedure in China. implementation and elaboration). Latin didn't diverge much till the end of the Roman empire in the fifth century, but then as it lived on as the spoken language throughout Europe, it began to diverge somewhat into multiple 'Latins.' Then a number of theoretical frameworks for the study of communication are discussed: Speech Act theory, Conversation Analysis, and theories concerned with ... Natural language facilitates communication in several other respects, be- Standardization of language course is considered very important in the process of language planning. "For one important example of the push/pull between divergence and standardization--and between vernacular language and writing--I'll summarize the Literacy Story... about Charlemagne, Alcuin, and Latin. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. For one, it was the Industrial Revolution – a period of great social, political, and economical change in Great Britain. Language standardisation and language change: The dynamics of Cape Dutch. Standardization may occur as a natural development of a language in a speech community or as an effort by members of a community to impose one dialect or variety as a standard. Such networks proved particularly important for innovations requiring collaboration. The term standardization is generally used within linguistics to refer to the process of bringing about a standard language. Mayr, Andrea. This leads to segregation between those who speak language in the ‘correct’ way and those who do not, labelling them as outsiders (Milroy 535). Here’s the formula for standardization: Similarly, we cannot assume that the form used by the upper class are the standard language form of the society. From a broader perspective, acquiring a standardised language essentially allows for efficient communication and assimilation within a larger social group (e.g. Romper, 25 March 2016, https://www.romper.com/p/rihannas-work-lyrics-use-creole-patois-totally-confusing-music-critics-7707. For many newer countries, though, the development of a standard language has had to take place fairly rapidly, and government intervention has therefore been necessary. In fact, we use language in many different ways, some of these are, the informational, the expressive, the directive, the phatic, the aesthetic. “Standardization” of Language in ELT Context. Getting It: Language standardisation and the Industrial Revolution. Of course this language standardization work is highly technical, but it involves a lot more than technical work alone. Learn more. What Is Koineization (or Dialect Mixing)? Thus, those who refuse or cannot acquire the standard language properly are marginalised in the society, further widening the language gap. A social history of English. It is a three-step process of standardising literacy/script, vocabulary, and then digital rendering (i.e. Routledge, 2000. 19. A&C Black. We need not thinkof them as being chronological. However, resulting from this diversity was the lack of a cultural or political power to unify the nation (until recently), as so, the language community was divided into dialects, fourteen sub-dialects, and numerous local varieties that each belong to different communities within the country (Elkartea 21). Language standardisation begins by selecting one of the many forms of language that exist in a society to be the standard. Yale University Press, 2010. 2010. It was no doubt a sensible decision as the younger generation of writers, speakers, language educators etc. March 2015, Dudleylm.files.wordpress.com. Language standardisation, while useful and essential within a society, also has its drawbacks. Standardization is another scaling technique where the values are centered around the mean with a unit standard deviation. Despite being associated with the upper class and being well-educated, most recent reports suggest that this form is practiced by a mere 2% of the population (British Library Board). What is language standardisation? These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. Milroy, James. shifting from a circle of peers to public spaces where potential business investors, migrants, policymakers are available). Language standardisation is very much a social process, and is powered by people. LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION HOW AND WHY Admilson F. S. Silva Luiz de Castro 2. John Benjamins Publishing, 2004. It creates a new pattern of understanding which people could then apply in social settings (Mayr 5). Dudley, Leon. Secondly, the language then gains prestige within the society for being associated with those of high social status. "The interaction of power, language, and reflections on language inextricably bound up with one another in human history, largely defines language standardization. Certain sects of the community were opposed to the inclusion of the letter ‘h’. It is the choices societies make that result in differing languages. Language and power: An introduction to institutional discourse. Finally, we must be wary of automatically forming relations between the upper class and standard forms of language. Critics. We analyze a set of linguistic features with the aim of depicting the dynamics of intralinguistic and interlinguistic convergence as they relate to the ongoing standardization processes in these languages. Fast-forwarding to the nineteenth century, the people pf Basque expressed an increasing desire to preserve the nation’s language culture with all its diversities. Additionally, we must recognise that language standardisation also ensues in response to increasing trade and capitalism. Rihanna’s ‘Work’ Lyrics Use Creole & Patois, Totally Confusing Music. STANDARDIZING? S. Rayjashree of the Project on Modernization and Language Development at the Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center, Honolulu, for what I … Language unification, standardization and corpus development imply a sophisticated national or collective effort which has to deal with philosophical, political — and technical — issues. More people speak a variety of Chinese as a A Little Book of Language. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. Those whom have accepted and are familiarised with the standard language can engage in discourse (Deumert 2), so to generate knowledge about communicative methods and processes. Variability is a fact of life for almost all languages. Thus, we can see that language standardisation is not only concerned with linguistic and literary goals, but also largely fuelled by economics, trade, and enterprise (Milroy 534-535). Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. A century later, Manuel Larramendi wrote the first Basque grammar and a dictionary by selecting words from every dialect to be included and recognised (Elkartea 25). Hence, we can see that this division is somewhat “man-made”. in aspects of writing, reading, and speaking), while 80% agreed that learning and using the standard Basque was necessary for work and for everyday life. One modern-day example is pop-culture icon Rihanna, and the collective mockery she faced for her song ‘Work’, which uses patois and creole (a language derived from a mix of several languages). WordPress, 9. But when Charlemagne conquered his huge kingdom in 800, he brought in Alcuin from England. One example of this is British Received Pronunciation, which some scholars deem the ‘standard’ form of English in the United Kingdom (Milroy 532-533). Continuum, 2010, Peter Trudgill, Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society, 4th ed. (It is, of course, an open question as to how much, if any, standardization is really required. Authority In Language. For instance, the maintenance stage can start quite early in the process, and continues throughout (Milroy 23). British Library Board. ", "English, of course, developed a standard variety by relatively 'natural' means, over the centuries, out of a kind of consensus, due to various social factors. Unaware of the existence of such slang, fans and music critics alike were quick to deem the song complete ‘gibberish’, despite its lyrics possessing proper meaning and semantics (Thomas). However, in 1977, almost 65.4% of publications complied with the standard guidelines. Standardization focuses on the product creation process, operations of businesses, technology in use, and how specific compulsory processes are instituted or carried out. Oxford University Press, 2012, Ana Deumert, Language Standardization, and Language Change: The Dynamics of Cape Dutch. This cultural evolution gives rise to an interesting phenomenon known as ‘language standardisation’. The latter, in contrast, are then stigmatized for using non-standard dialects. The standardisation of language does not only unify the various dialects and sub-dialects of Basque, but also symbolises the unification of a society with diverse, and presumably hazy, historical roots. With every generation, new words are constantly invented and introduced into the language lexicon, which may then be taught to the next generation (Crystal 132). The basic objectives of the academy were: In a further effort to standardise the language of the country, Koldo Mitxelena proposed a set of guidelines for the new language standard in 1968. Ones to spread the use of this standard language represent the consensus of the society must express... And establishing a standard language occasionally refers to the Sino-Tibetan language family concepts language... Some features of this site may not work without it Media discourse: Texts practices! Their diverse historical roots and cultural factors ( Milroy 23 ) gained general approval, society. It is superior to all other options ultimately shapes the standard form of the.! Press, 2012, Ana Deumert, language educators etc. he brought in Alcuin England... Their attitudes the confluence of diverse cultures and perspectives within a society to be,. Is concerned with linguistic forms ( corpus planning, i.e new features will be,... 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