Unfortunately, this facility closed in 1983. Indian Institute of Millet Research to Use Sweet Sorghum to Boost Ethanol Production (New Indian Express) Sweet sorghum is a variety of sorghum or jowar/jonna, which has high sugar levels in its stalk … Switchgrass and sweet sorghum fertilization for bioenergy feedstocks. The need to immediately squeeze the juice out creates logistical challenges in harvesting and transporting stalks for sugar extraction and conversion. Normally, the fibrous parts of the plant are discarded after juicing. Sorghum holds promise for … Dr. Bill Rooney at Texas A&M University has released female inbred lines with higher sugar content for use in the production of sweet sorghum hybrids. However, sweet sorghum seed and equipment costs will be higher than grain sorghum. Charlotte Niemiec is OFI’s editorial assistant The companies intend to work together to support the introduction of sweet sorghum as a source of fermentable sugars at Brazil’s 400 or more ethanol mills. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. “But it’s a much more drought tolerant, heat tolerant plant.”. The crop is highly adaptable to wide range of climatic conditions including drought and salinity. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a C4 crop in the grass family, and is characterized by a high photosynthetic efficiency. The initiative is the product of research on sorghum … Most of the sweet … “Sweet sorghum is supposed to be a drought-tolerant crop. Ilse Rojas, a Ph.D. student from Chile, is doing her dissertation research on how to get more return from the plant. Besides having rapid growth, high sugar accumulation, and biomass production potential, sweet sorghum has wide adaptability (Reddy and Sanjana 2003). Corn (left) and sweet sorghum (right) at the Kellogg Biological Station in Hickory Corners, Michigan. One challenge is that, upon harvest, sugars rapidly degrade. “Sweet sorghum is supposed to be a drought-tolerant crop. Segment by Application, the Sweet Sorghum Ethanol market is segmented into United States, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India and Rest of World. Sweet sorghum can be grown in many regions of the United States. With less need for nitrogen fertilizer and its incredibly drought-tolerant nature, it is a much more affordable and viable option than corn for fuel production. Research report: Early deheading of sweet sorghum. In this system, the synthetic gas and bio-oil are used for transportation fuel, and the charcoal is applied to fields to improve soil structure. Handbook No. A study by Memphis Bioworks showed that sweet sorghum processing plants should be located no more than six miles from production fields in the Delta region (Tripp et al., 2009). Latest potent biofuel made from Sweet sorghum sap. Xie Fenzhou, Sugar accumulation law in stem Juice of sweet sorghum, Liaoning Agricultural Science .1989.5 4.2. Nebraska. 38-45 Proc. to other crops such as corn or sugarcane. Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel Production in Louisiana The federal mandate for energy security through the development of sustainable biofuels has revived interest in sweet sorghum as a renewable energy … Study on palletizing machine for yeast cells immobilized carrier production. To optimize ethanol yield, a juice extraction rate of at least 50% from the stalks is needed. The same diseases that affect grain sorghum also attack sweet sorghum. Sugar contents in sweet sorghum tend to be highest in years with low rainfall and sunny days late in the season. In particular, biomass type hybrid GN-10 achieved the highest biomass (17.4 t ha-1) and theoretical ethanol yields (5,423 L ha-1) after averaging data for all environmental sites. Sweet … During World War II, when sugar was rationed, bootleggers used the juice of sweet sorghum to make moonshine. be-info@email.arizona.edu Sweet sorghum is a potential biofuel crop because it is capable of producing high yields of ethanol from a combination of easily fermentable sugars and lignocellulosic bagasse. Broadhead, N. Zummo, and F.E. Although sweet sorghum is primarily grown to produce sorghum syrup, it can also be used as a feedstock for biofuel. http://www.agbioworks.org/regional.cfm. Considering the energy challenges we face in the United States, the research Slack and his team are doing is of interest to a great many people and organizations, from private industry all the way up to the federal government. However, sorghum is less cold tolerant than corn. By BETSY BLANEY, Associated Press Writer. Sweet sorghum is an excellent source for the production of biofuel and green energy. Biofuels Home. Sugar in the stalk is not the primary focus. Keller and M81E are resistant to red stalk rot (anthracnose) but are susceptible to maize dwarf virus (MDM). USDA Agr. Sweet sorghum as a biofuel crop: Where are we now? Let's start with the basics. Studies in India have found that after juice extraction, sweet sorghum bagasse can form part of a nutritious animal feed, giving dryland farmers an additional source of fodder and income. Dr. Morris Bitzer calculated that corn has an energy efficiency of 1:1.8, while sweet sorghum has an efficiency of 1:8 (personal communication, 2009). It is harnessing that curiosity and passion in his students that Slack sees as the core of his work. Through the research in Slack’s lab, he and his graduate students are finding better ways to grow the plants and optimize their production of juice, which is then fermented into ethanol. “I love working with graduate students. From 2007 to 2009, University of Kentucky researchers examined the feasibility of ethanol … In test plots in Missouri, atrazine and metolachor gave good grass and broadleaf weed control. National Sweet Sorghum Producers and Processors Association. Photo: Dennis Pennington, Bioenergy Educator. The UA has multiple agricultural research facilities; Slack and his team are working on their sweet sorghum project at the Red Rock Agricultural Center, a 320-acre facility 40 miles north of Tucson. Sweet sorghum is similar to grain sorghum but with sugar-rich stalks and the ability to use water efficiently. Sweet sorghum [SS; Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potential biofuel crop for the Great Plains. Sweet sorghum is also much more water-efficient than most biofuel crops. The successful production of sweet sorghum in South Africa is restricted due to a lack of sustainable production systems. 2009 International Annual Meetings. Sweet sorghum is an excellent source for the production of biofuel and green energy. Drying fuel and electricity can be deleted from the budget. For the biofuels industry, sweet sorghum offers compelling options – if the hybrids work eco - nomically and the adoption is there. The seed heads on sweet sorghum are located on the top of the stalks. Sweet sorghum is a promising target for biofuel production. Sweet sorghum is the same species (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) as grain sorghum. Sweet sorghum could be grown on about half of this land. Height is also an issue; sweet sorghum can be blown down in strong winds. The project is a collaboration between the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the College of Engineering. “We need to have chemical engineers who understand how the materials can be refined into a product, and we need agricultural engineers who can work with machinery to extract the juices and process the materials.”. Sweet sorghum is any of the many varieties of sorghum which have a high sugar content. DA-BAR’s director, William Medrano, says the use of sorghum as a biofuel fits with the Philippine government’s current energy conservation efforts, which involve the development and use of biologically derived alternatives to expensive oil imports. “The Department of Energy is very interested in alternative energy – in particular, biofuels,” says Slack. Consult manufacturers to be sure they can be applied on sweet sorghum. of Agr. As a leading public research university, the University of Arizona is working hard to answer this question through pioneering research in alternative fuels. 1177 E. 4th Street, Shantz Building, Room 403, Tucson, AZ, USA 85721-0038, Biosystems Analytics & Technology, MS & PhD, Don Slack, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Biosystems Engineering. (http://extension.missouri.edu/seregion/Crop_Budgets_PDF&Excell/Grain_Sorghum.pdf). “Sweet sorghum” is a special-purpose sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) with a sugar-rich stalk similar to sugarcane. The San Carlos Apaches and the Yaqui tribes have expressed interest in growing sorghum. Most sorghum syrup farmers remove seed heads using cutters mounted on high clearance spray equipment. Isaac Hedges called it the “Northern Sugar Plant” because of the high sugar content in the stalks. Dale is a mid-season variety developed at the U.S. Sugar Crops Field Station. For this project, both high-biomass sorghum and sweet sorghum will be tested in the US, while high-biomass sorghum and bmr sorghum will be grown in India. Published by Battelle Technology Partnership Practice. Corn also requires a fair amount of water. However, this crop may someday have another use in the Commonwealth — as a bioenergy crop. Ideally, each sweet sorghum farm would have its own processing facility. The super sweet sorghum aims to produce high biomass, higher yields, and stem soluble sugars, under marginal land. “We’re here to educate students, and the byproduct of our educating students is the research,” he says. Indeed (Murray et al. Wednesday, May 14, 2008. With an aim to bring sweet sorghum back into mainstream biofuel production, ICRISAT and partners have developed a project, Commercialization of sweet sorghum as a complimentary feedstock for ethanol production in the sugar mills of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat. http://nssppa.org/. In addition, sweet sorghum has a °Brix or estimated fermentable sugar of 9 percent, and as the fermentable sugar of sweet sorghum increases, wherein studies show results higher than the estimated 9 percent, the more viable the ethanol’s country production using sweet sorghum becomes. Sorghum holds promise for American Indian farmers who have rights to a fairly significant amount of CAP (Central Arizona Project) water. “Arizona is one of the places where we can grow sweet sorghum very efficiently, so the Department of Energy has funded this research for the past two years.”. (Photo by Swathi Sridharan via Creative Commons) Countries such as India and Brazil are already ramping up sweet sorghum production to supplement sugar cane as an ethanol ingredient. ASA-CSSA-SSSA. Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel Production ... NSSV 255 and RSSV 56 are the sweet sorghum cultures identified by the "All IndiaCoordinated sorghum improvement project at National level". Sweet sorghum could be grown on about half of this land. Sweet Sorghum: A New Smart Biofuel Crop that Ensures Food Security : May 19, 2008 PATANCHERU, India : In these days of soaring food prices worldwide , imagine a crop that provides food, livestock feed and biofuel. Hybrid Madhura was developed by "Nimkar Agricultural Research Institute, Phaltan, Maharashtra". Sweet sorghum is also more water-efficient: sugarcane consumes two and a half units of water to produce one unit of ethanol, whereas sweet sorghum produces one unit of ethanol from one unit of water. We want to know if we can use some lands that are not suitable for food production, using less water, but also guaranteeing some kind of energy for people here.”. Furthermore, cultivating sweet sorghum in dryland conditions does not compromise the food or feed security as farmers could continue to use grain for food or feed and stalk juice for renewable biofuels production. Sweet sorghum can be planted in marginal land areas in less developed countries and areas, particularly in Africa, to stimulate local economies; and the establishment of flexible biorefineries should allow exploitation of these multiple feedstocks and extend the projected environmental and economic benefits of biofuels. 2009. Energy sorghum is specifically bred for high lignocellulosic biomass that can be converted to biofuels, whereas sweet sorghum, also known as sweet stalk sorghum, refers specifically to genotypes that accumulate soluble sugars in the stalk . Milling tests were conducted on both energycane and sweet sorghum at the LSU AgCenter… The stalk and seed are used directly for biomass energy and their high sugar content allows them to be fermented to make ethanol. Belum VS Reddy, P Srinivasa Rao, A Ashok Kumar, P Sanjana Reddy, P Parthasarathy Rao, Kiran K Sharma, Michael Blummel and Ch Ravinder Reddy International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502 324, Andhra Pradesh, India. The report includes region-wise market size for the period 2015-2026. Memphis Bioworks Foundation and BioDimensions. Biofuel Others The Sweet Sorghum Ethanol market is analysed and market size information is provided by regions (countries). Fields with irrigation should have higher populations than non-irrigated fields. To estimate input costs for sweet sorghum, begin with a crop budget for grain sorghum. Dale is resistant to most diseases. Sweet sorghum could be grown on about half of this land. Rojas’s work is focusing on converting that material, called bagasse, into sugars that can then be fermented into ethanol. Extraction requires a roller mill or diffuser equipment. Sweet sorghum was compared with corn [Zea mays (L.)] and grain sorghum for potential ethanol yield, energy use efficiency, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at seven dryland site‐years in Nebraska.Seasonal rainfall ranged from approximately 340 to 660 mm. However, the biofuel syndrome of plant architecture (leaves, root, and stem), flowering time and bioconversion efficiency, their genetic components and how these traits can be modulated as potential routes to optimize sweet sorghum for biofuel … Obviously, the higher the sugar content in the stalks, the higher the potential ethanol yield. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. “The land grant university has three very specific, important missions: education, research and extension. Aug 11, 2008. In this system, the synthetic gas and bio-oil are used for transportation fuel, and the charcoal is applied to fields to improve soil structure. An international group called the Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Association was organized in 2007 to promote sweet sorghum crop management practices and technologies to make ethanol and bio-derivatives. As a result of the efforts of Congressman Raul Grijalva, the United States Department of Energy is also helping to fund the project. Sweet sorghum could … The vinasse, which is a mixture of dead yeast and plant material after fermentation, can be composted and sold for fertilizer. The study was concluded prior to the enactment into law of the Biofuels Act (RA 9637) which requires vehicle manufacturers and owners as well as oil companies to use fuels diluted with sugar or starch-derived alcohol to reduce the country's dependence on imported fuel and promote cleaner air. 1986. Handbook No. As the plant matures, carbohydrates are translocated from the stalks to the head to make starch in the seeds. In favorable environments, sweet sorghum varieties can grow 14 feet tall and produce 20 to 50 tons of biomass (fresh weight) per acre. University of Missouri Extension M171. E-Mail; Print Nebraska. The study found that sweet sorghum is comparable if not better than sugarcane for ethanol production. Juerg, B., W. Thompson, W. Rooney, and B. Bean. Paper presented at the 2008 Joint Annual Meeting, Celebrating the . Freeman, K.C., D.M. Slack has two graduate students working on the project. Sweet sorghum was first introduced into the United States in 1852. It is hoped that this will change in the near future. “We need to have plant scientists to understand how the plants grow and mature,” says Slack. It’s a favorite part of what I do.”, 1177 E. 4th Street, Shantz Building, Room 403, Tucson, AZ, USA 85721-0038 Other lines include chinch bug resistance and non-flowering types. Sweet sorghum could become leading bioethanol feedstocks. Bioethanol. 1-5 Nov. Pittsburgh, PA. Stevens, G., R. Holou, D. Dunn, and A. Wrather. sweet sorghum has shot into prominence because of its competitiveness as a … Email: b.reddy@cgiar.org Introduction Agriculture and energy have always … In Missouri, following soybean the previous year, maximum sweet sorghum biomass yields were achieved in some fields with no nitrogen (Stevens, 2009). Biomass type sorghum was superior to sweet type as non-food ethanol feedstock. 611, 55 pp. This project integrates all three of those missions,” says Slack. The Sorghum Checkoff is committed to meeting the needs of sorghum growers and ethanol producers. Fungicide seed treatments can be used to reduce seedling disease infestation. Being a water-use efficient crop, sweet sorghum … Bio Fuels Revolution – Sweet Sorghum – The Smart Crop Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is frequently called as smart crop for its ability of not only produce food but fuel as well. Such a combination of talents and areas of expertise is absolutely essential for the success of an effort of this scope and complexity. Most of sweet sorghum models for biofuel production use either gasification or fermentation to process plant material into biofuel. Tania Martinez-Cruz, a graduate student from Mexico, is looking at different varieties of sweet sorghum and how they grow. Potential for Sweet sorghum as a biofuel. Nutrient crop removal for sweet sorghum is similar to forage sorghum. However, large-scale planting on … Bradley, K., L. Sweets, W. Bailey, and J. Wrather. Sweet sorghum is a leading potential biofuel feedstock that can be produced in South African's water‐limiting conditions under marginal lands. Bitzer, M. 2009. Most labs request a forage yield estimate when soil samples are submitted to make crop removal calculations. Memphis, TN. http://extension.missouri.edu/seregion/Crop_Budgets_PDF&Excell/Grain_Sorghum.pdf, Energy Answers for the Beginning Farmer and Rancher, NEWBio Team Defines Human Systems Driving the Bioeconomy Transition, NEWBio Harvest, Preprocessing, and Logistics Team Optimizes Biomass Supply Chain Processes, NEWBio Feedstock Improvement Team Breeds Better Switchgrass and Willow for the Bioeconomy. Sweet sorghum: from booze to biofuel. The bagasse can be used to feed livestock or pelletized to burn. The statement “all biomass is local” also applies to sweet sorghum feedstock. Fortunately, sorghum plants can often compensate for low plant stands by producing several tillers per plant. International Year of Planet Ea rth, 5–9 October 2008, Houston, Texas. To design a sustainable production system, apply enough fertilizer to offset crop removal or spread the bagasse and vinasse back on the field. Indo-US Biofuels Research Project - The second generation biofuels consortium will focus on development of sustainable, advanced lignocellulosic biofuel systems. for heat in buildings or to produce electricity. This procedure will not be as important when hybrid varieties are grown that are male sterile or do not flower at all. Other … Sweet sorghum may grow up to twenty feet tall and produce significantly higher biomass yields compared to grain sorghum. The production of sweet sorghum biofuel is quite gentle on the environment. To utilize the bagasse for feeding, cattle should be in the vicinity. For this project, both high-biomass sorghum and sweet sorghum will be tested in the US, while high-biomass sorghum and bmr sorghum will be grown in India. Advantages of sweet sorghum for biofuel production 1. Sweet sorghum … Most sweet sorghum varieties planted in the United States today were developed at the U.S. Sugar Crops Field Station at Meridian, Mississippi. It needs less fertilizer than corn, which results in less water contamination, says Ray Coniglio, a spokesman for Sebastian, Fla.-based Renewable Energy LLC, which has invested in the production of sweet sorghum … Courtesy of University of Arizona Cooperative Extension. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is primarily grown in Kentucky for its syrup. Plant lodging is more likely to occur in high population fields because stalks become smaller in diameter due to competition. In this regard, the concept of super sweet sorghum ideotypes is proposed to stimulate discussion on how to combine the various biofuel syndromes to design the genomes of sweet sorghum hybrids for the various climatic zones. Sweet sorghum, a plant that grows to a height of 8 to 12 … 1Freeman et al., 1986. Dr. Mike Ackerson describes the process and benefits of making gasoline quality biofuel from sweet sorghum. Missouri pest management guide: corn, grain sorghum, soybean, and winter wheat. It is a multipurpose crop, yielding food in the form of grain and fuel in … In his eyes, offering a great educational experience is what gives rise to excellent research an innovation. U.S. Dept. Usually in about 2.5 weeks, sugar content will increase to optimum levels before harvest. To maintain high sugar content in the stems, remove the seed heads “when the seed is in the late milk stage” (Bitzer, 2009). We want to know if we can use some lands that are not suitable for food production, using less water, but also guaranteeing some kind of energy … It is a C4 crop with low input requirements and accumulates high levels of sugars in its stalks. Optimum planting rates vary by region and soils. It grows in dry conditions, tolerates heat, salt and waterlogging, and provides steady income for poor farmers. It is more drought tolerant than corn and requires less nitrogen fertilizer. Theis is resistant to both red stalk rot and MDM. Yield of sweet sorghum varieties at Blairsville, Georgia, and Quicksand, Kentucky.1. Before planting, sweet sorghum seed was treated with fluxofenin herbicide seed safener to minimize crop injury. Be sure to purchase a model that automatically compensates for temperature. Compared to other biofuel crops unlike sugarcane sweet sorghum … Since sweet sorghum is a multipurpose crop serving as a source of food, animal feed, and biofuel (Ratnavathi et al., 2011), it is a leading candidate biofuel crop. That isn’t happening yet in the United States, which is more attached to corn, but the federal energy and agriculture … Stalks of sweet sorghum contain fermentable sugars in the sap equal to 400-600 gallons of ethanol per acre. Sweet sorghum is similar to grain sorghum but with sugar-rich stalks and the ability to use water efficiently. The development of alternative forms of biofuels … SWEET SORGHUM FOR BIOFUEL INDUSTRY. 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