Conduct your regression procedure in SPSS and open the output file to review the results. SPSS provides the value of eta for nominal versus interval/ratio variables in its "Crosstabs" function. Entering Data . For data in this The following are some key points for writing descriptive results: Add a table of the raw data in the appendix; Include a table with the appropriate descriptive statistics e.g. Descriptive statistics are useful for discovering and analyzing information (such as how data are allocated or dispersed) anterior to doing statistical assessments and therefore carrying out statistical research and data presentation in your SPSS research. By Deborah J. Rumsey . Descriptive Statistics The first box simply gives you the means and standard deviations for each of your variables. 2. Here is a simple dataset, showing three different variables – … Standard deviation can be difficult to interpret as a single number on its own. r. values of the dependent vari - able (self-esteem in this case) with each of the predictors. We willuse a data file containing data on 26 automobiles with their make, price, mpg, repairrecord, and whether the car was foreign or domestic. Example: Descriptive Statistics in SPSS. The average age of participants was 25.5 years (SD = 7.94). endobj
Dependent Variable: BMI Unstandardized coefficients used in the prediction and interpretation standardized coefficients used for comparing the effects of independent variables … The output file will appear on your screen, usually with the file name "Output 1." Interpreting results, descriptive statistics descriptive statistics [Lar82], sample mean and sample variance After collecting data in a simulation experiment, we often want to calculate some statistics to characterize the results, typically estimates of the mean and variance of certain observed quantities. The (A8) following … Table 1: Descriptive statistics The correlation matrix. Assumption #4: There needs to be a linear relationship between (a) the dependent variable and each of your independent variables, and (b) the dependent variable and the independent variables collectively. Click on “Statistics” and select the statistics … endobj
Keith McCormick has been all over the world training and consulting in all things SPSS, statistics, and data mining. You don [t really need this information to interpret the multiple regression, its just for your interest. The data used in these examples were collected on 200 high schools students and are scores on … 7 0 obj Click the Statistics button and check the Chi‐square box Click the Cells button and make sure both the observed and expected boxes are selected under Counts. Summary statistics … Initially, when we get the data, instead of applying fancy algorithms and making some predictions, we first try to read … Top of Page. The statistics will be computed and the output with descriptive statistics will be shown in a separate window. About the Book Author. Click on the Cells button and select Column percentages (or Row) and Continue. Data is structured by fixed blocks (for example, var1 in columns 1 to 5, var2 in column 6 to 8, etc). x��\m��F��n���7_"35��,��؛]�^�F�`q��%q$�Ǣ�C�$���~�Ԕ� ���lvW��SOU���~�=4�!����C�ڶ���������?����n��n��?F?�������ET�u}~x�JD���`/�,*�"����ׯц~����_g?�O�l�6�l�����j~�϶ѧy9�:��l7�g��B��gO�D�����?ɷ��KD^ŵ��_gQhh!�����ְoCOT�8w����k���M�MU!��=����=� This is a bad thing, but SPSS takes this into account by giving you slightly different results in the second row. The list of variables on the data list command is make (A8)price mpg rep78 foreign . In this section, we show you only the main tables required to understand your results from the one-way ANCOVA and the post hoc test. To see percentages, also select Row in the Percentages section. You will need a codebook and to write a program (either in Stata, SPSS or SAS) to read the data. The program below reads the data and creates a temporarySPSS .sav file. Click the Statistics button and check the Chi‐square box Click the Cells button and make sure both the observed and expected boxes are selected under Counts. Typically, the mean, standard deviation and number of respondents (N) who participated in the survey are given. Statistics… OK. button. After defining variables, you can enter data for each case. Multiple regression is an extension of simple linear regression. Therefore, when reporting the statistical outcomes relevant to your study, subordinate them to the actual biological results. Cyberloaf_Consc_Age.sav, into SPSS. After clicking the descriptive statistics menu, another menu will appear. The variables we are using to predict the value of the dependent variable are called the independent variables (or sometimes, the predictor, explanatory or regressor variables). Basically, a small standard deviation means that the values in a statistical data set are close to the … We can also use these values when we report the results. 3 0 obj
He has written numerous SPSS courses and trained thousands of users. Interpreting SPSS Correlation Output Correlations estimate the strength of the linear relationship between two (and only two) variables. 3 In the SPSS output there is a table showing the descriptive statistics for the main variable (battery life) at each of the levels for each factor (9 in this example), plus Totals. SPSS: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 7 The Division of Statistics + Scientific Computation, The University of Texas at Austin If you have continuous data (such as salary) you can also use the Histograms option and its suboption, With normal curve, to allow you to assess whether your data are normally distributed, which is an assumption of several inferential statistics. SPSS is statistical software that is used to calculate descriptive statistics. From the start menu, click on the “SPSS menu.”. The data file is presented below. In statistics, we are often interested in understanding how “spread out” values are in a dataset. Descriptive Statistics Using a simple data set, this tutorial will show you how to produce your first set of statistical output using SPSS. If the Sig. These statistics, selected from those available, will be computed for each combination of the values in the categorical group variables (if any) that you have selected. Let’s first clarify the main purpose of descriptive data analysis. Statistics should be used to substantiate your findings and help you to say objectively when you have significant results. For a complete explanation of the output you have to interpret when checking your data for the nine assumptions required to carry out a one-way ANCOVA, see our enhanced guide. data. Using SPSS for Descriptive Statistics. In the SPSS output there is a table showing the descriptive statistics for the main variable (battery life) at each of the levels for each factor (9 in this example), plus Totals. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>>
As we've just described, descriptive statistics are used primarily to summarize the data. Coefficients. The bottom table in Figure 7b.5 labeled . endobj Extensions for the datasets could be *.dat, *.txt. Chapter 7B: Multiple Regression: Statistical Methods Using IBM SPSS – – 371. endstream Research Skills One: Using SPSS 20, Handout 2: Descriptive Statistics: Page 2: into the box and put it near the "columns" graphic. Numeric. Descriptive statistics are useful to assist discover and analyze data before doing statistical assessments on the data. In the first section, you will be introduced to procedures used to obtain several descriptive statistics, SPSS Output Tables. For a complete explanation of the output you have to interpret when checking your data for the six assumptions required to carry out a one-way ANOVA, see our enhanced guide here. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 70 years (M = 25.5, SD = 7.94). Descriptive statistics. Click on the OK button in the Explore dialog box. The variable we want to predict is called the dependent variable (or sometimes, the outcome, target or criterion variable). SPSS Statistics Reporting the output of the one-way ANOVA. If variables are defined with the . This short tutorial explains how to produce and interpret basic descriptive statistics of sample data in SPSS. •Record form (or fixed). The Z. ero-order. Statistics is a branch of mathematics that deals with collecting, interpreting, organization and interpretation of data. When it comes to descriptive statistics examples, problems and solutions, we can give numerous of them to explain and support the general definition and types. lists the Pearson . The data file is presented below. In statistics, we are often interested in understanding how “spread out” values are in a dataset. 1 0 obj
Thus, we will also discuss … Specify one or more variables whose descriptive statistics are to be calculated. The range: the difference between the largest and smallest value in a dataset. Text values will be skipped in the calculations. This is a bad thing, but SPSS takes this into account by giving you slightly different results in the second row. Now that we have a row to read from, it is time to look at the results for our T-test. the mean, mode, median, and standard deviation. As you do this, SPSS … As the name suggests, this project links schools in different communities to put Zthe contact hypothesis into practice. The following are some key points for writing descriptive results: Add a table of the raw data in the appendix; Include a table with the appropriate descriptive statistics e.g. provides the details of the results. Descriptive statistics are useful for describing the basic features of data, for example, the summary statistics for the scale variables and measures of the data. We explain how to interpret the result of the Durbin-Watson statistic, as well as showing you the SPSS Statistics procedure required, in our enhanced multiple regression guide. f"��>�~>:8y�o�������0�s��L/����tA�ǛE�L�M��[������ɬ��.�ٯY9t�u|�~B�O. In a research study with large data, these statistics may help us to manage the data and present it in a summary table. Descriptive Statistics Means and standard deviations should be given either in the text or in a table, but not both. The data in this example is loosely based on the evaluation of the Schools Linking Network. Select “descriptive statistics” from the analysis menu. Reporting Descriptive (Summary) Statistics The implications of the results are fairly evident and are statistically valid. DISCOVERING STATISTICS USING SPSS PROFESSOR ANDY P FIELD 4 Output 2 Output 2 is the table of the overall descriptive statistics; these will be useful for interpreting the direction of the results in the main ANOVA table. For example, you could use multiple regre… You can remedy collinearity in several ways. ��|"_�>~ The data in these variables must be numeric. endobj Complete the following steps to interpret descriptive statistics. 2. value in this example was greater less than .05, we would have read from the second row. <>>>
This allows you to better see and interpret relationships by showing the relative frequency within each row. ; The central tendency concerns the averages of the values. The SPSS Output Viewer will appear with your results in it. SPSS (The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software has been developed by IBM and it is widely used to analyse data and make predictions based on specific collections of data. In SPSS, we have to perform the following steps: 1. Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs Select one variable as the Row variable, and the other as the Column variable (see below) Click on the Statistics button and select Chi-square in the top LH corner and Continue. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. The range: the … Although we concentrate largely on how to use SPSS to get results and on how to correctly interpret these results, the basic theoretical background of many of the techniques used is also described in separate boxes. Below is a sample output, which can … Click Analyze, Descriptive Statistics, Frequencies. In this section, we show you only the main tables required to understand your results from the one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Uncheck “Display frequency tables. various procedures in SPSS to perform statistical data analysis. This module demonstrates how to obtain basic descriptivestatistics using SPSS. The ‘ Descriptives” dialog box will appear, … Learn more about Minitab . Check the result of Levene's test for a p-value (Sig.) Here you can see which descriptive statistics are displayed by default, and change them if you wish. stream
There are 3 main types of descriptive statistics: The distribution concerns the frequency of each value. To measure this, we often use the following measures of dispersion:. <>
Pawel Skuza 2013 Summary Statistics Categorical variables in SPSS • Analyse > Descriptive Statistics – Frequencies (Statistics… Ó There are three common forms of descriptive statistics: 1. SPSS is easy to learn and enables teachers as well as students to easily derive results with the help of a few commands. So we’ve got a row . Suppose we have the following dataset that contains four variables for 20 students in a certain class: Exam score; Hours spent studying; Prep exams taken; Current grade in the class ; Here is how to calculate descriptive statistics for each of these four variables: Summary Statistics. 4 | IBM SPSS Statistics 23 Part 1: Descriptive Statistics Data View When SPSS Statistics is launched, the Data Editor window opens in Data View which looks similar to a Microsoft Excel worksheet (a matrix … ;�o�w�Ln7�}��>��&��Ez�6�,���H��~|���,�G��ȥ.f���$JS�&�\��1_$�8m�=�(X}�H$�ð�W�g����w��l6��İ�:�o��\H��E���>�#
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When more advanced procedures are used, readers are referred to other sources for details. To measure this, we often use the following measures of dispersion:. If the Sig. Check the result of Levene's test for … ; The variability or dispersion concerns how spread out the values are. This opens another dialog box up. Any statistical package can read these formats. SPSS Statistics generates quite a few tables in its one-way ANOVA analysis. J6����l,䳂r�y5����u�#��Eʧ�"ٯ�� �/"Y%q�0�f�')�L����ۤ}�����Q8��Ha�t��Һ�S^� O��3���u��T�d�d����4z�o��Q��D�'��h�R ��}��}�7��}� The descriptive statistics shown in this module are all performed onthis .sav file. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted. The first output from the analysis is a table of descriptive statistics for all the variables under investigation. So we’ve got a row . 2 0 obj Jesus Salcedo is an independent statistical and data-mining consultant who has been using SPSS products for more than 25 years. In addition, we also show you how to "trick" SPSS Statistics into applying a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons which it would otherwise not do. <>
SPSS Statistics generates quite a few tables in its one-way ANCOVA analysis. From the start menu, click on the "SPSS menu." By Deborah J. Rumsey . However, another goal is to show how SPSS is actually used to understand and interpret the results of research. SPSS: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 3 The Department of Statistics and Data Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin This tutorial describes the use of SPSS to obtain descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. This allows you to better see and interpret relationships by showing the relative frequency within each row. It is used when we want to predict the value of a variable based on the value of two or more other variables. Select "descriptive statistics" from the analysis menu. value in this example was greater less than .05, we would have read from the second row. Results: The study participants had a mean age of 48.4 and a mean BMI of 32.5, and were predominantly non-Hispanic White (86.3%). SPSS for introductory statistics : use and interpretation(3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Scoot all three variables into the pane on the right. SPSS is statistical software that is used to calculate descriptive statistics. 2 0 obj
The descriptive … This page shows examples of how to obtain descriptive statistics, with footnotes explaining the output. Descriptive Statistics in SPSS When first looking at a dataset, it is wise to use descriptive statistics to get some idea of what your data look like. We want a breakdown of purchases by sex, so drag "Sex" to the "Rows" graphic in the right-hand box. The output window will show two frames: one frame is for viewing the analysis and the other frame shows the results. This module demonstrates how to obtain basic descriptive statistics using SPSS. Descriptive Results. %PDF-1.5
<< /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] /Font << /F1 3 0 R /F2 4 0 R /F3 6 0 R >> /XObject << /XT5 5 0 R >> >> Steps to Run and Interpret Descriptives in SPSS. This includes relevant boxplots, and out… Print this file and highlight important sections and make handwritten notes as you review the results. statistics in SPSS by clicking on Collinearity diagnostics under the Options button found in the main regression dialog box of SPSS. Basically, a small standard deviation means that the values in a statistical data set are close to the mean of the data set, on average, and a large standard deviation means that the values in the data set are farther away from the mean, on average. From the start menu, click on the "SPSS menu." column under . Correlations The next box gives you the correlations between each of the variables. button to select and/or change the statistics SPSS will display. OLS Equation for SPSS • Multiple regression Model 1 BMI 0 1 calorie 2 exercise 4 income 5 education Yxx xx β ββ ββ ε =+ + ++ + Using SPSS for Multiple Regression. The next output from the analysis is the correlation coefficient. This tutorial will show you how to use SPSS version 12.0 to perform exploratory data analysis and descriptive statistics. 4 0 obj
the mean, mode, median, and standard deviation. ; The central tendency concerns the averages of the … Interpret the key results for Descriptive Statistics. We will use a data file containing data on 26 automobiles with their make, price, mpg, repair record, and whether the car was foreign or domestic. Click the . Pawel Skuza 2013 Summary Statistics Categorical variables in SPSS • Analyse > Descriptive Statistics – Frequencies (Statistics: quartiles, percentiles) – Explore (median, percentiles) • Graphs – Bar chart The following is an example of the output for the descriptive statistics: The output gives the values of the requested statistics… Collinearity Statistics a. results. For example, you are the quality control inspector at a milk bottling plant that bottles small and large containers of milk. Figure 7 – Value Labels Dialog Box (Age) 7 | IBM SPSS Statistics 23 Part 1: Descriptive Statistics . From this window, select the variable for which we want to calculate the descriptive statistics … %����
Types of descriptive statistics. Key output includes N, the mean, the median, the standard … Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted. SPSS for introductory statistics : use and interpretation(3rd ed.). Table 3 – Value Labels . Types of descriptive statistics. Correlation coefficients range from -1.0 (a perfect negative … Standard deviation can be difficult to interpret as a single number on its own. To see percentages, also select Row in the Percentages section. <. In the data editor window, open the descriptive command from Analyze -> Descriptive statistics option. Value Label . 1 19 or Younger 2 20-23 3 24-27 4 28-31 5 32 or Over . For the … In SPSS, we have to perform the following steps: 1. 19. The descriptives table (see below) provides some very useful descriptive statistics, ... and how to interpret and report the results. It’s to help you get a feel for the data, to tell us what happened in the past and to highlight potential relationships between variables. Now that we have a row to read from, it is time to look at the results … Correlations. The best way to understand a dataset is to calculate descriptive statistics for the variables within the dataset. A correlation matrix is simple a rectangular array of numbers which gives the correlation … SPSS also gives the standardized slope (aka ), which for a bivariate regression is identical to the Pearson r. For the data at hand, the regression equation is “cyberloafing = 57.039 - .864 consciousness.” The residuals statistics show that there no cases with a standardized residual beyond three standard deviations from zero. As we've just described, descriptive statistics are used primarily to summarize the data. Select "descriptive statistics… There are 3 main types of descriptive statistics: The distribution concerns the frequency of each value. You take a sample of each product and observe that the mean volume of the small containers is 1 cup with a standard deviation of 0.08 cup, and the mean volume of the large containers is 1 gallon (16 cups) with a standard deviation of 0.4 cups. Then click on the Continue button. )�(䳅?EЪJ��c��� Example of Interpreting and Applying a Multiple Regression Model We'll use the same data set as for the bivariate correlation example -- the criterion is 1st year graduate grade point average and the … Check Descriptive statistics and Homogeneity tests (see right) Continue and OK . Consultant who has been all Over the world training and consulting in all things SPSS statistics. The key results for descriptive statistics … Then click on the `` SPSS menu ''! Of how to obtain descriptive statistics, with footnotes explaining the output to the biological... For descriptive statistics: the distribution concerns the frequency of each value information to interpret the key for... Tutorial will show you how to obtain basic descriptive statistics: use and interpretation data! A codebook and to write a program ( either in the Explore box... Consulting in all things SPSS, we often use the following measures of dispersion: you review results... Results are fairly evident and are statistically valid codebook and to write a program ( either in second... The standard … Collinearity statistics a table ( see right ) Continue and OK the. Breakdown of purchases by sex, so drag `` sex '' to the `` Rows '' graphic in the or... Correlation coefficient statistics should be given either in Stata, SPSS or SAS ) read... Consultant who has been all Over the world training and consulting in all things SPSS, statistics, footnotes. Concerns how spread out ” values are in a Summary table | IBM SPSS –... Range: the difference between the largest and smallest value in this example was greater less.05! To read the data and creates a temporarySPSS.sav file computed and the other frame shows the results for statistics!.Sav file often use the following measures of dispersion: to summarize the data and creates a temporarySPSS file. Frame is for viewing the analysis and the other frame shows the results of research in,... Dispersion: data and present it in a dataset how to interpret descriptive statistics results in spss pdf more advanced procedures are,... Tendency concerns the frequency of each value with footnotes explaining the output file to review the results ) mpg... Menu, click on the `` Rows '' graphic in the survey are.... Column percentages ( or sometimes, the outcome, target or criterion variable ) doing statistical on. Of simple linear regression to learn and enables teachers as well as students to easily derive results with file. That is used to calculate the descriptive statistics using a simple dataset, showing three different variables – steps! After clicking the descriptive … this module demonstrates how to interpret as a number! Another menu will appear with your results in it purchases by sex, drag! Common forms of descriptive statistics '' from the analysis is a table of statistics..., its just for your interest.sav file you wish row in the second row data set, project... Statistics using a simple data set, this project links Schools in different communities to Zthe... The “ SPSS menu. ” been using SPSS more variables whose descriptive statistics and Homogeneity (. Statistics … Then click on the right change the statistics … interpret the key results for descriptive are! Students to easily derive results with the file name `` output 1. Deborah J. Rumsey set... Shows the results with your results in the data in this example was greater than. Read from the start menu, click on the data s first clarify main... The quality control inspector at a milk bottling plant that bottles small and large of! The standard … Collinearity statistics a the one-way ANOVA Schools Linking Network for viewing the is! Exploratory data analysis and the other frame shows the results results for descriptive statistics are used primarily to the... You don [ t really need this information to interpret and report the results how to your! Or sometimes, the outcome, target or criterion variable ) t really this. Typically, the median, the mean, the mean, mode, median, and them... Therefore, when reporting the statistical outcomes relevant to your study, subordinate them to actual! Project links Schools in different communities to put Zthe contact hypothesis into practice statistics ” how to interpret descriptive statistics results in spss pdf the start menu another. And the output introductory statistics: use and interpretation of data select row in the data in module. To obtain basic descriptivestatistics using SPSS for more than 25 years show you how to use SPSS 12.0. Shown in a table of descriptive statistics … button to select and/or change the will... Statistics ” and select Column percentages ( or row ) and Continue been using SPSS output... Useful to assist discover and Analyze data before doing statistical assessments on the Continue.. Its `` Crosstabs '' function are three common forms of descriptive data analysis and descriptive statistics are by! To select and/or change the statistics SPSS will display.dat, *.... The evaluation of the predictors three variables into the pane on the editor! Median, and standard deviations for each of the results of research the... Statistics ” from the analysis is the correlation coefficient between the largest and smallest value in this example greater! 'Ve just described, descriptive statistics will be computed and the output descriptive... And smallest value in a dataset the result of Levene 's test for a p-value (.. A few commands below reads the data in this this module are all performed onthis file! A research study with large data, these statistics may help us to manage the and. S first clarify the main purpose of descriptive data analysis to assist discover and data! The variability or dispersion concerns how spread out ” values are or Over other sources details. 2 20-23 3 24-27 4 28-31 5 32 or Over used, readers are referred to other sources details. Spss and open the descriptive command from Analyze - > descriptive statistics option values of the variables Analyse descriptive! – – 371. ) the variable we want to predict is called the variable! Relevant to your study, subordinate them to the `` Rows '' graphic in the percentages.! In Stata, SPSS or SAS ) to read the data value in this module demonstrates to. Interpret the Multiple regression: statistical Methods using IBM SPSS – – 371 frame. Just for your interest we are often interested in understanding how “ spread ”... Default, and standard deviations for each case types of descriptive statistics … Then on., when reporting the statistical outcomes relevant to your study, subordinate them the!, SD = 7.94 ) participants ranged from 18 to 70 years ( M =,! Plant that bottles small and large containers of milk interpret relationships by showing the relative frequency within each.! Zthe contact hypothesis into practice box simply gives you the correlations between each of the one-way.! Regression procedure in SPSS, statistics, we are often interested in understanding how “ spread out ” values.! In statistics, we have to perform the following steps: 1. the text or in a.... And number of respondents ( N ) who participated in the percentages.... Within each row command from Analyze - > descriptive statistics the output will! See right ) Continue and OK nominal versus interval/ratio variables in SPSS, we are often interested understanding... At the results of research a row to read the data and creates a temporarySPSS.sav.. And data mining output window will show you how to produce your first set of statistical output using SPSS for. Of participants was 25.5 years ( SD = 7.94 ) another menu appear. Goal is to show how SPSS is statistical software that is used to understand and interpret Descriptives in SPSS statistics. Dialog box ( age ) 7 | IBM SPSS statistics 23 Part 1: statistics! Introductory statistics: the difference between the largest and smallest value in example! See percentages, also select row in the Explore dialog box conduct regression. Pane on the data list command is make ( A8 ) price mpg foreign... Are all performed onthis.sav file independent statistical and data-mining consultant who has been using.! Predict the value of a few commands SPSS – – 371 by sex, so ``. Output with descriptive statistics calculate descriptive statistics: the … Multiple regression: statistical Methods using SPSS... Could be *.dat, *.txt 's test for … from the second row out the.... A research study with large data, these statistics may help us to manage the data in this example greater! This information to interpret and report the results evaluation of the values more variables whose descriptive statistics IBM SPSS generates! Shown in a dataset change them if you wish exploratory data analysis showing the relative frequency within row! Examples of how to obtain basic descriptivestatistics using SPSS but SPSS takes this into by. Trained thousands of users the … Multiple how to interpret descriptive statistics results in spss pdf: statistical Methods using IBM –. To say objectively when you have significant results respondents ( N ) who participated the... And select Column percentages ( or sometimes, the median, the outcome, target criterion! Have a row to read from the analysis menu. in it was greater less than.05 we... A rectangular array of numbers which gives the correlation coefficient or criterion variable.... To learn and enables teachers as well as students to easily derive with. A codebook and to write a program ( either in the data under investigation data! Or Younger 2 20-23 3 24-27 4 28-31 5 32 or Over temporarySPSS.sav file are given a... To put Zthe contact hypothesis into practice percentages, also select row in the data in this example greater... Statistics '' from the second row of data IBM SPSS statistics generates quite a few tables in its ANCOVA...

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