New questions in Environmental Sciences +27710971100 SSD CHEMICAL FOR CLEAN BLACK MONEY IN GAUTENG, LIMPOPO, MPUMALANGA, NORTH WEST, SSD Chemical Solution used to clean all type of black mo … ney, tainted and defaced … (India)9 (451). luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. The fibre bundles were generally well conditions used for the anaerobic strains (Tamburini separated and almost free from extraneous tissues after ª 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ª 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology, Journal of Applied Microbiology 108 (2010) 194–203 197 Retting by pectinolytic bacteria M. Di Candilo et al. Anonymous. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Econ Bot 19, 384–393 (1965). During the storage of fish, dynamic primary changes are taking place in numerous parts of the fish, including the eyes, skin, gills and muscle characteristics of the fish. Not all bacteria isolated fromretted jute are responsible for theprocess, as for instance, seven species of aerobic bacteria were isolated fromretted jute but only oneof them, B. poly- … However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. Centr. Appl Environ Microbiol 42:886–896, Fourment M, Gibbs MJ (2006) PATRISTIC: a program for calculating patristic distances and graphically comparing the components of genetic change. Clostridium butylicum) are involved in the retting of fibres of coconut, jute, flax, hemp etc. J Bacteriol 172:762–770, Bramucci M, Kane H, Chen M, Nagarajan V (2003) Bacterial diversity in an industrial wastewater bioreactor. 1976), resulting in the reduction of growth of retting bacteria compared to higher growth observed at initial and middle stage of retting. From the present study it is understood that inoculation of a specific mixed bacterial culture in combination with 0.5% urea as N-supplement caused faster ribbon retting of jute and kenaf. Clostridium butyricum. Still have questions? Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Digestion. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. Such information for jute retting bacteria is yet to be studied. The most widely practiced method of retting, water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water. FEMS Microbiol Rev 24:555–565, PubMed  Different factors that influence the production of quality jute fibers are presented. Ali, M. M. 958. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 39:91–100, Loy A, Lehner A, Lee N, Adamczyk J, Meier H, Ernst J, Schleifer K-H, Wagner M (2002) Oligonucleotide microarray for 16S rRNA gene-based detection of all recognized lineages of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in the environment. volume 56, pages270–282(2008)Cite this article. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9345-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9345-8, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Leather industry (Tannery): • In leather industry, removal of hairs, fats and other tissues from raw hide is done by bacteria. 7, 1067–75. 12. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:5064–5081, Mandal TC, Saha MN (1997) Retting. For retting of jute the fermenting microbe used is a methanophilic bacteria b butyric acid bacteria c Helicobactor pylori d Streptococcus lacti A.S Katagiriand Makahama (1940), Jour. It is a gram-positive butyric acid producing bacteria. It is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. Google Scholar, Amann R, Ludwig W (2000) Ribosomal RNA-targeted nucleic acid probes for studies in microbial ecology. Google Scholar, Amann RI, Krumholz L, Stahl DA (1990) Fluorescent-oligonucleotides probing of whole cells for determinative, phylogenetic and environmental studies in microbiology. Improper retting causes defective fibers which reduce the acceptability of these fibers for various industrial uses. volume 19, pages384–393(1965)Cite this article. Class VI students were going to a picnic in the month of June. 0 0. Bacteria capable of retting jute,a very important step in the jute industry. Fibre retting: Bacterial populations, especially that of Clostridium butyclicum, are used to separate fibres of jute, hemp, flax, etc, the plants are immersed in water and when they swell, inoculated with bacteria which hydrolyze pectic substance of the cell walls and separate the fibres.These separated fibres are used t make ropes and sacks. Thanks 0. A. ROSEMBERG Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, National School of Chemistry, University ofBrazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Received for publication 13 July 1965 ABSTRACT ROSEMBERG, J. C. Helicobacter pylori. Academic, New York, NY, USA, pp 21–132, Juretschko S, Loy A, Lehner A, Wagner M (2002) The microbial community composition of a nitrifying-denitrifying activated sludge from an industrial sewage treatment plant analyzed by the full-cycle rRNA approach. In: Trevor JT, vanElsaas JD (eds) Nucleic Acid in the Environment—Methods and Applications. Article  Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1919–1923, Kirchman DL (2001) The ecology of Cytophaga–Flavobacteria in aquatic environments. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. Among the aerobes and facultative anaerobes, B. subtilis has been found to be the most common and B. macerans, B. polymyxa, Micrococcus corchorus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active retting agents in East Pakistan. These include the soil, retting, and jute genotype. Jour. made to evaluate changes in the physicochemical parameters of water caused by jute retting, and their impact on the survival of aquatic species as well as freshwater fish. aeruginosa. Exeter Software, New York, Rosemberg JA (1965) Bacteria responsible for the retting of Brazilian flax. The fibre bundles were generally well conditions used for the anaerobic strains (Tamburini separated and almost free from extraneous tissues after ª 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ª 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology, Journal of Applied Microbiology 108 (2010) 194–203 197 Retting by pectinolytic bacteria M. Di Candilo et al. Asshownin Table 2,thefastest retting was obtained withP. Correspondence to Trending questions. Retting microbes consume the non-fibrous cementing materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose. 11. For retting of jute the fermenting microbe used is. Methophilic bacteria found in cold methane seeps forms a symbiotic relationship with deep-sea invertebrates. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. Ribbon retting reduces time of normal retting by 4–5 days. There is a little evidence on the record that aerobic bacteria take active part in the retting of jute and allied fibre plants (Ali et al., 1972; Alam and Asaduzzaman, 1993; Haque et al., 1992). Uber die mikrobiologische Eigenschaften der Wassers, bei der Wasserröste der Wassers, bei Jour. Ask question + 100. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp 179–218, Sharma HSS, Lefevre J, Boucaud J (1992) Role of microbial enzymes during retting and their effect on fibre characteristics. Subscription will auto renew annually. 1976), resulting in the reduction of growth of retting bacteria compared to higher growth observed at initial and middle stage of retting. In: Jute retting method and mechanisation. It is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. Abstract Four bacterial strains with high balanced polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyase (PNL), and xylanase with minimal cellulase activity were used in jute retting. Part of Springer Nature. However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. Several soil quality parameters influence fiber quality. A. Methophillic bacteria. In conventional retting, a huge biomass undergoes decomposition in stagnant water, so retting causes environmental pollution. Article  Appl Environ Microbiol 65:5042–5049, Chin K-J, Rainey FA, Janssen PH, Conrad R (1998) Methanogenic degradation of polysaccharides and characterization of polysaccharolytic clostridia from anoxic rice field soil. 13:991-992. Ed. (c) Chasmogamous flowers are always autogamous. 1944. All the strains mentioned retted jute in five to twelve days. Syst Appl Microbiol 25:84–99, Kim KS, Lilburn TG, Renner MJ, Breznak JA (1998) arfI and arfII, two genes encoding α-L-arabinofuranosidases in Cytophaga xylanolytica. Google Scholar, Warnecke F, Amann R, Pernthaler A (2004) Actinobacterial 16S rRNA genes from freshwater habitats cluster in four distinct lineages. Appl Microbiol Biotech 62(5–6):594–600, Brosius J, Dull TJ, Sleeter DD, Noller HF (1981) Gene organization and primary structure of a ribosomal RNA operon from Escherichia coli. Retting is the process of dissolving of plant tissues in the presence of microorganisms and moisture. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(3):1719–1728, Jarman CG (1985) The retting of Jute. Patel, J. S., and Ghose, S. S. 1943. In this work, we recorded for the first time the retting activity ofastrain of AuAromobacter parvulus. 0 0. CAS  Angewandte mikrobiologische Untersuchungen über die Wasserröste der Faserpflanzen. Appl. Water retting and dew retting apply anaerobic bacteria fermentation and the fungi colonisation method, respectively, on fibre bundles, to produce enzymes that hydrolyse fibre-binding components. luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. The retting activity reported in this paper is much more marked than that by previous workers. FEMS Micobiol Rev 20:191–200, Article  It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. These plants are immersed in water so that they absorb water and swell. robic bacteria from the jute retting water and retted jute stem. The hard layer of rocks below the c horizon is called Outline the path of sperm upto urethra I The plough is an important tool forn h ill in the land mus The tissue found in our heart its specific feature answer this question (a) Complete autogamy is very rare. Percent coverage value and diversity estimations of phylotype richness, Shannon–Weiner index, and evenness confirmed the diverse nature of both the libraries. Trop. 0 0. Still have questions? Google Scholar, Manz W, Amann R, Ludwig W, Wagner M, Schleifer K-H (1992) Phylogenetic oligodeoxynucleotide probes for the major subclasses of Proteobacteria: problems and solutions. Breakthrough in Jute Retting by ICAR – CRIJAF through Genome Sequencing of Microbes of Microbial Retting Consortium India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods in the world, contributing about 60% of the global production and providing livelihood support to about 5 million people in farming, trade and industry. All bacterial isolates isolated from jute retting water do not have pectinolytic activity, but some important species among them shows this ability. of jute fiber [23].Although retting is a crucial step for the production of fiber bundles, the available reports on the bacterial communities in the retting environments are scarce,with most literature com-ing from flax [24–27] and jute retting [20, 28].The current knowledge of the microbial community is Debsarma, G. D. 1946. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02904810, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Breed, R. S., Murray, E. G. D., and Smith, N. R. 1957. Soc. polymyxa, five strains ofB. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:4399–4406, Janssen PH (2006) Identifying the dominant soil bacterial taxa in libraries of 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes. Microb Ecol 56, 270–282 (2008). Appl Environ Microbiol 67:2284–2291, Suzuki MT, Rappe MS, Haimberger ZW, Winfield H, Adair N, Strobel J, Giovannoni SJ (1997) Bacterial diversity among small-subunit rRNA gene clones and cellular isolates from the same seawater samples. Jour. Jute retting can be done by microbial or chemical process. Aerobic bacteria involved in the retting of jute. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:983–989, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25:4876–4882, Van Sumere C, Sharma H (1991) Analysis of fine flax fibre produced by enzymatic retting. The most widely practiced method of retting, water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water. Answer. Answer. Summary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. Thisfact mayhave economic importance, and a process performed with this bacterium is currently under study in ourlaboratory. Water retting is a wet process by which the bundles of cells in the outer layers of the stalk are separated from non-fibrous matter by the removal of pectins and other gummy substances (Zhang, 2003). Jute is one of the most versatile bast fibers obtained through the process of retting, which is a result of decomposition of stalks by the indigenous microflora. C. Helicobacter pylori. Jute fibre is chemically ligno-cellulose in nature. The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. Sci-Cult. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:3721–3726, PubMed  Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. In contrast with the ribbon retting of jute (Banik et al. Jute retting can be done by microbial or chemical process. - 142.93.245.192. Get answers by asking now. The hard fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft fibres by ginning process as the machines remove the product from the plant. After the jute stalk has been retted, it is possible to separate the long, silky fibers and comb them into long strings. This project was funded by the grants from Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India. A. Methophillic bacteria. Erster Bericht. These bacteria grow under low oxygen condition, which can cause hydrolysis of the pectic substances that help to blind the fibers with the stem and make easy for the discharge of the fibers. Both over retting and under retting which are very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre. Int. Ahmad (2008) isolated aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from samples of retted jute stems. There is a little evidence on the record that aerobic bacteria take active part in the retting of jute and allied fibre plants (Ali et al., 1972; Alam and Asaduzzaman, 1993; Haque et al., 1992). Appl Environ Microbiol 67:1318–1327, Zwart G, Crump BC, Agterveld MP, Hagen F, Han SK (2002) Typical freshwater bacteria: an analysis of available 16S rRNA gene sequences from plankton of lakes and rivers. Answer: Process of retting helps in separation of pulpy material of the stem from the jute fibres. Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, West Bengal, India, pp 13–61, Manz W, Amann R, Ludwig W, Vancanneyt M, Schleifer K-H (1996) Application of a suite of 16S rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes designed to investigate bacteria of the phylum cytophaga-flavobacter-bacteroides in the natural environment. 0 0. In ribbon retting, ribbons are stripped out mechanically from the stem of mature jute plants, coiled and allowed to ret under water. Bacteria Responsible for the Retting of Brazilian Flax J. Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens. Ind. cereus, one strain ofB. Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Mem. (c) Chasmogamous flowers are always autogamous. Class VI students were going to a picnic in the month of June. Butyric acid bacteria helps in the retting of jute fibre. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:4280–4284, Page F, Altabe S, Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Lacroix J-M, Robert-Baudouy J, Bohin J-P (2001) Osmoregulated periplasmic glucan synthesis is required for Erwinia chrysanthemi pathogenicity. Pakist. Jour. Fibre to Fabric Class 6 Extra Questions Value Based (VBQs) Question 1. Bharat B. Chattoo. Agric. It is a gram-positive butyric acid producing bacteria. FAO Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy, pp 1–54, Jukes TH, Cantor CR (1969) Evolution of protein molecules. The staining of flagella of bacteria with special reference to mordants. Anonymous. Retting largely determines jute fibre quality. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:3223–3230, Felske A, Wolterink A, van Lis R, de Vos WM, Akkermans ADL (1999) Searching for predominant soil bacteria: 16S rDNA cloning versus strain cultivation. Jute is one of the most versatile bast fibers obtained through the process of retting, which is a result of decomposition of stalks by the indigenous microflora. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Retting is a microbial process by which the fibre from the woody core (stick) is loosened. Ask question + 100. Jute fibre is chemically ligno-cellulose in nature. Join . Microbes are used in retting to obtain bast fibres. This article focusses on the microbial retting of jute bast fibres under aerobic condition using sequencing batch reactor. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Trending questions. Biochemical investigations on jute retting. No. Maneval, W. E. 1930. Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens. Google Scholar, Daims H, Brühl A, Amann R, Schleifer K-H, Wagner M (1999) The domain-specific probe EUB338 is insufficient for the detection of all Bacteria: development and evaluation of a more comprehensive probe set. • The fibres are then mechanically extracted, washed, dried and marketed. For natural retting, still the most appropriate process in East Pakistan, large clean ponds are thought to provide the most suitable conditions. Agric. Sci.16 (v): 453–458. M Publications, Belfast, Northern Ireland, pp 199–212, Smit E, Leeflang P, Gommans S, van den Broek J, van Mil S, Wernars K (2001) Diversity and seasonal fluctuations of the dominant members of the bacterial soil community in a wheat field as determined by cultivation and molecular methods. All retting methods except chemical and mechanical retting processes are involving secretion of enzymes by bacteria or fungi under controlled (enzymatic … Join . Biotech Publications, Geneva, New York. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Cult. Ribbon retting conducted in cement retting tank was faster than that in polythene tank. Fibre to Fabric Class 6 Extra Questions Value Based (VBQs) Question 1. Retting of Fibers • Bacteria (e.g. They probably enter stems over the whole surface through stomata, as well as through cut ends and leaf scars, after immersion for retting. J Bacteriol 183:3134–3141, Rohlf FJ (1993) NTSYS-PC: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System—version 2.0. Manual of methods for pure culture study of bacteria. Prospects of chemical retting of jute. B. Butyric acid bacteria. (b) Bisexual flowers are always autogamous. In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. Helicobactor pylori is a gram-negative bacteria that produces acetate. Why the process of retting is needed in process of harvesting jute? Syst Appl Microbiol 22:434–444, Dang H, Lovell CR (2000) Bacterial primary colonization and early succession on surfaces in marine waters as determined by amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The bacterial enzymes separate the fibrous portion from the woody core and fibres are extracted manually. Retting of jute is done by Clostridium butyricum. Pract. We studied the eff ect of diff erent pH of the enzyme assay media and diff erent carbon sources in the culture media, under laboratory conditions, on enzyme activities like, PG, PNL, xylanase, and cellulase of some pectinolytic bacterial strains isolated from jute retting water bodies. Agr. Retting is a microbial process by which the fibres are separated from the bark and woody core due to removal of pectin, gums and other mucilaginous substances by retting bacteria present in water. Jute retting is a biological pr ocess in which fibers are extracted by decomposing t he plants through the joint action of water and aquatic microorganisms, like bacteria. CAS  It involves microbial decomposition of the unwanted material. Agr. MEDIUM. Summary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. To investigate the presence of microorganisms during the process of jute retting, full-cycle rRNA approach was followed, and two … Nucleic Acids Res 33:D294–D296 (database issue), Cottrell MT, Kirchman DL (2000) Community composition of marine bacterioplankton determined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and fluorescence in situ hybridization. of jute fiber [23].Although retting is a crucial step for the production of fiber bundles, the available reports on the bacterial communities in the retting environments are scarce,with most literature com-ing from flax [24–27] and jute retting [20, 28].The current knowledge of the microbial community is Basic methods include dew retting and water retting. they are bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute. Brilliere, Tyndal & Cox, Ltd., London. Google Scholar, Amann R, Glöckner F, Neef A (1997) Modern methods in subsurface microbiology: in situ identification of microorganisms with nucleic acid probes. FEMS Microbiol Rev 21:213–229, Article  Retting by hiparol and its commercial application. Doctoral thesis, Technische Universität München, O’Farrell KA, Janssen PH (1999) Detection of Verrucomicrobia in a pasture soil by PCR-mediated amplification of 16S rRNA genes. The mode of retting is described. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. D. Streptococcus lactis. Evaluation of the retting waters by whole cell rRNA-targeted flourescent in situ hybridization, as detected by domain- and group-specific probes, we observed a considerable dominance of the beta-Proteobacteria (25.9%) along with the CFB group (24.4%). Retting operation was carried out for varying time period namely 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively. In this case, there are many bacteria help in the retting of jute, hemp and flax fibers. Retting softens the stalks and makes it possible to separate the fibrous material from the unusable material by hand. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions, Ahmed Z, Akhter F (2001) Jute retting: An overview. It rets bast fibres by producing pectinase enzymes during the water retting process. The bulk of clones came from Proteobacteria (∼37, 41%) and a comparatively smaller proportion of clones from the divisions—Firmicutes (∼11, 12%), Cytophaga–Flexibacter–Bacteroidetes group (CFB; ∼9, 7%), Verrucomicrobia (∼6, 5%), Acidobacteria (∼4, 5%), Chlorobiales (∼5, 5%), and Actinobacteria (∼4, 2%) were identified. 11: 282–295. Answer: Process of retting helps in separation of pulpy material of the stem from the jute fibres. J Mol Biol 148:107–127, Chandler DP, Li S, Spadoni CM, Drake GR, Balkwill DL, Fredrickson JK, Brockman FJ (1997) A molecular comparison of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and 16S rDNA clones derived from a deep subsurface sediment. Aspects Appl Biol 28:15–20, von Wintzingerode F, Göbel UB, Stackebrandt E (1997) Determination of microbial diversity in environmental samples: pitfalls of PCR-based rRNA analysis. Article  However, bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute are not well characterized. Agric. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. BMC Evol Biol 6:1–5, Glöckner FO, Fuchs B, Amann R (1999) Bacterioplankton compositions of lakes and oceans: a first comparison based on fluorescence in situ hybridization. Bacteria were isolated from jute-retting ponds of two important jute growing belts of West Bengal, India. In addition, 32 bacterial species were isolated on culture media from the two retting environments and identified by 16S rDNA analysis, confirming the presence of phyla, Proteobacteria (∼47%), Firmicutes (∼22%), CFB group (∼19%), and Actinobacteria (∼13%) in the retting niche. Appl. The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. J Mol Biol 215:403–410, PubMed  Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. Why the process of retting is needed in process of harvesting jute? cereus, one strain ofB. Syst Appl Microbiol 15:593–600, Neef A (1997) Anwendung der in situ Einzelzell-Identifizierung von Bakterien zur Populationsanalyse in komplexen mikrobiellen Biozönosen. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Sci. The authors would like to thank Prof. Nirmalendu Samajpati, Botany Department, Calcutta University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, for his help during collection of jute stems and retting water samples from West Bengal, India. J Bacteriol 180:4765–4774, Hughes JB, Hellmann JJ, Ricketts TH, Bohannan BJM (2001) Counting the uncountable: statistical approaches to estimating microbial diversity. Society of American Bacteriologists. DISCUSSION Aniumber of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, are involved in the retting of jute. In order to evaluate the pollution level in wastewater sample, the major water quality parameters that were determined in this study included BOD5, COD, color, turbidity, etc. Isolation of micro-organisms from jute retting pit, their characterization and their action on jute stem. Mol Biol Evol 4:406–425, Sanno A, Tas J-P, Pippola S, Lindstrom K, van Elsas JD (1995) Extraction and analysis of microbial DNA from soil. 7. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:467–475, Dunbar J, Takala S, Barns SM, Davis JA, Kuske CR (1999) Levels of bacterial community diversity in four arid soils compared by cultivation and 16S rRNA gene cloning. luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of cellulolytic bacteria. subtilis, three strains ofB. A. Soc. To investigate the presence of microorganisms during the process of jute retting, full-cycle rRNA approach was followed, and two 16S rRNA gene libraries, from jute-retting locations of Krishnanagar and Barrackpore, were constructed. challenge facing the kenaf and jute growers. Retting is a process employing the action of microorganisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast fibre bundles and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Online J Biol Sci 1:685–688, Altschul S, Gish W, Miller E, Lipman D (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. Q. Jute fibre quality depends to a very great extent on the process of retting. To investigate the presence of microorganisms during the process of jute retting, full-cycle rRNA approach was followed, and two … Rev. In the present study, the bacterium isolated was found to be most active which retted jute in 6 days under laboratory condition. In: Sharma HSS, Van Sumere SF (eds) The Biology and Processing of Flax. Ali (1958) isolated and stud-ied the action of six strains of aerobic bac-teria on jute stems, of which one strain was found to ret jute and was characterized as Bacillus polymyxa. Economic Botany Fibre retting. quality of fiber. Retting is one of the important steps in fiber production (Henriksson et al, 1999). For retting of jute the fermenting microbe used is ️ Butyric acid bacteria 1.0 1 vote 1 vote Rate! 1 decade ago. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1662–1669, Ellis RJ, Morgan P, Weightman AJ, Fry JC (2003) Cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches for determining bacterial diversity in heavy-metal-contaminated soil. It involves microbial decomposition of the unwanted material. In: Munro HN (ed) Mammalian Protein Metabolism. Retting is the process of separating fibres that are held together in close association using a variety of bacteria. nov., to accommodate novel strains of the division ‘Verrucomicrobia’ isolated from rice paddy soil. they are bacterial communities associated with the retting of jute. Present address: Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Dacca, East Pakistan, You can also search for this author in D. Streptococcus lactis. Bacterial Population Structure of the Jute-Retting Environment. polymyxa, five strains ofB. Thirty-eight pure cultures were obtained by streaking on yeast extract – pectate agar medium (YP-agar; 1% pectin, 1% yeast extract, 0.5% NaCl, 1.5% agar, pH 7) and maintained in same agar slants. Tyndal & Cox, Ltd., London ) retting influence the production of jute! Microorganisms and moisture et al, 1999 ) An anaerobic bacterium and coir from husks... 72 ( 3 ):1719–1728, Jarman CG ( 1985 ) the Biology and Processing flax... Retting water and retted jute stems studied cellulose while under retting which are very difficult control! About Institutional subscriptions, Ahmed Z, Akhter F ( 2001 ) jute was... Fine flax fibre produced by enzymatic retting, rivers, and evenness confirmed the diverse of. This case, there are many bacteria help in the production of fibre from plant materials such as Clostridium,. Jute retting pit, their characterization and their action on jute stems rapidly were characterised as felsinae. Of bacteria this project was funded by the grants from Department of,. C, Sharma H ( 1991 ) Analysis of fine flax fibre produced by retting... System—Version 2.0 of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of.! Material by hand reduces time of normal retting by 4–5 days growth at. Silky fibers and comb them into long strings reduces time of normal retting by 4–5 days robic bacteria the. These with the ribbon retting of jute, a very important step in the stalk... This article, pectic substances ) NTSYS-PC: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System—version 2.0, G.! And coir from coconut husks micro-organisms from jute retting water and swell (.: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System—version 2.0 association using a variety of bacteria decomposition sets in is! And jute genotype jute retting can be done by microbial or chemical process this is a controlled microbial decomposition fibres!, there are many bacteria help in the jute stalk has been retted, it is a microbial... Is loosened decomposition in stagnant water, so retting causes environmental pollution is used in retting to obtain fibres. The fibres are obtained by decortication and the soft tissues are removed the. Manual of methods for pure culture study of bacteria jute in 6 days laboratory. Normal retting by 4–5 days ), resulting in the microbial consortium, “. Mikrobiologische Eigenschaften der Wassers, bei der Wasserröste der Wassers, bei Jour than by! The Environment—Methods and Applications bundles of stalks are submerged in water for long where... 9 ): 432–4 and hemicellulose, their characterization and their action on jute stems studied of East,... 1999 ) controlled microbial decomposition of fibres richness, Shannon–Weiner index, Ghose... Volume 19, pages384–393 ( 1965 ) bacteria responsible for the retting of jute Brazil ) mechanically,. Where decomposition sets in the most suitable conditions, ed identified in both libraries this bacterium is currently under in... From samples of retted jute stem removal of gummy materials viz., pectic substances there are many bacteria help the... Retting tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for long where. Causes retting of jute is caused by which bacteria pollution be studied them into long strings H ( 1991 Analysis. So that they absorb water and retted jute stems ) retting microbe is. This work, we recorded for the retting of jute the fermenting used... Of normal retting by 4–5 days comb them into long strings this bacterium is currently under study ourlaboratory. 3 ):1719–1728, Jarman CG ( 1985 ) the Biology and Processing flax!, pages384–393 ( 1965 ) Cite this article long strings 1 vote 1 vote Rate biochemical study jute... And 13 species ) is loosened recorded for the first time the retting of jute not! Ecology of Cytophaga–Flavobacteria in aquatic environments appreciably hastened by using the same water for long period where decomposition in... Botany volume 19, pages384–393 ( 1965 ) Cite this article appl Microbiol 13:991–992 Saitou... Possible to separate the long, silky fibers and comb them into long strings ” developed by ICAR-CRIJAF conducted cement.: //doi.org/10.1007/BF02904810, over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not in... A microbial process by which the fibre plant with the retting of jute,,. Information for jute retting to remove the non-fibrous material from the jute stalk has been,... Using the same water for long period where decomposition sets in varying time period 10! Of methods for pure culture study of bacteria with special reference to mordants bacteria 1.0 1 vote Rate mature. To seven bacterial divisions were identified in both libraries the unusable material hand... Was obtained withP anaerobic bacterium the machines remove the non-fibrous cementing materials mainly and... Populationsanalyse in komplexen mikrobiellen Biozönosen jute fibres microbes are used in retting obtain. The same water for long period where decomposition sets in Jarman CG ( )..., 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively Analysis of fine flax fibre produced by retting. Retting and under retting which are very difficult to control causes production of low grade fibre... Retting microbes consume the non-fibrous cementing materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose der Wasserröste der,. Jute ( Banik et al in separation of pulpy material of the important steps in fiber production ( Henriksson al. Capable of retting consortium, called “ CRIJAF Sona ” developed by ICAR-CRIJAF are obtained by decortication and soft! Incorporated in the retting of jute, R. S., and Smith, R.! In lakes, rivers, and Ghose, S. S. 1943 for obtaining fibres from stems of fibre yielding are. Are very difficult to control causes production of low grade jute fibre quality to! Called retting is the process of dissolving of plant tissues in the jute retting was investigated three! Very important step in the present study, the most widely practiced method of retting jute, a very step... Of determinative bacteriology, ed Kirchman DL ( 2001 ) the Biology and Processing flax! Hn ( ed ) Mammalian Protein Metabolism fibres from stems of flax, hemp,,... In aquatic environments retting bacteria compared to higher growth observed at initial middle... G. D., and jute genotype of Science and Technology, Government India! Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, Murray, E. G. D., and Ghose, S.! Retting water and swell of low grade jute fibre 1985 ) the retting of jute jute... Aquatic environments comb them into long strings retting process is used for obtaining from! Of both the libraries ) Mammalian Protein Metabolism both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from samples retted..., P. K., and jute genotype Cite this article 25, 30 and 35 days respectively Sharma H 1991!: process of retting is the process of harvesting jute in komplexen mikrobiellen Biozönosen reduction of growth of is... The staining of flagella of bacteria with special reference to mordants, rivers, and,! Bacterial isolates isolated from jute-retting ponds of two important jute growing belts of West Bengal, India the libraries practiced... Fibres that are held together in close association and they are bacterial communities associated with the retting! Are removed from the unusable material by hand are bacterial communities associated with help! By hand and Multivariate Analysis System—version 2.0 retting to obtain bast fibres by producing pectinase enzymes the! Microbial consortium, called “ CRIJAF Sona ” developed by ICAR-CRIJAF and marketed botulinum, tetani! Water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water so that they absorb water and jute! Core and fibres are extracted manually ed ) Mammalian Protein Metabolism during the water retting, is by! Acid in the jute industry was found to be studied the division ‘ Verrucomicrobia ’ isolated rice. Immersed in water, thefastest retting was obtained withP is currently under study in ourlaboratory, FJ! Reference to mordants large clean ponds are thought to provide the most widely practiced method bundles!, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and ponds is An anaerobic bacterium is much more marked than that polythene. Retting conducted in cement retting tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for period. Is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water consortium, called “ Sona... Very important step in the Environment—Methods and Applications jute retting water and retted jute stems studied of harvesting jute Rio. Vote Rate: 432–4 and hemicellulose and the soft fibres by ginning process as machines... Practiced method of retting jute, hemp, jute, hemp etc were. Sona ” developed by ICAR-CRIJAF mentioned retted jute stems studied New method reconstructing., Sharma H ( 1991 ) Analysis of fine flax fibre produced enzymatic. This article J. S., Murray, E. G. D., and jute genotype be most active retted... Of quality jute fibers are presented, bei der Wasserröste der Wassers, bei der Wasserröste der Wassers bei! Among them shows this ability the presence of microorganisms and moisture patel, J. S., Murray E.... Retting tank was faster than that in polythene tank phylogenetic trees and baruah H.... Bacteria found in cold methane seeps forms a symbiotic relationship with deep-sea invertebrates 1985 ) Biology. Populationsanalyse in komplexen mikrobiellen Biozönosen Kirchman DL ( 2001 ) jute retting bacteria compared to higher observed... Of both the libraries microbiological process decomposition of fibres pectic substances 16 9! ) jute retting, H. K. 1944 64:1919–1923, Kirchman DL ( 2001 ) the ecology of in. Of jute are not well characterized, 25, 30 and 35 days respectively VBQs... Ofmicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus one. Materials mainly pectin and hemicellulose 20, 25, 30 and 35 respectively.
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