Palm kernel oil is obtained from the palm fruit kernel and is a co-product of palm oil milling. [1] It should not be confused with the other two edible oils derived from palm fruits: palm oil, extracted from the pulp of the oil palm fruit, and coconut oil, extracted from the kernel of the coconut.[2]. It should not be confused with the other two edible oils derived from palm fruits: palm oil, extracted from the pulp of the oil palm fruit, and coconut oil, extracted from the kernel of the coconut. In contrast, oleins with IV of less than 60 have cloud point of 6–10°C. It is the variations in the structure and number of carbons in these fatty acid chains that largely define the chemical and physical properties of palm oil. The same oil palm tree therefore produces 2 different types of oil with different properties and fatty acid compositions, but with the same botanical origin. Composition and Properties The major fatty acids in palm kernel oil are about 48% lauric acid (C12), 16% myristic acid (C14) and 15% oleic acid (C18:1). Further fractionation of the olein produces a more unsaturated fraction, often called super-olein or double fractionated olein. Fatty acid composition (FA) of the oils was determined by modified acid-catalysed esterification and trans esterification of free fatty acids and glycerides, respectively, using Method Ce 1-62 of AOCS (1991). We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. Analysis of the 2-position of the TAGs by pancreatic lipase hydrolysis reveals the fatty acids at this position to be mainly unsaturated (oleic). The differences in TAG composition between olein with iodine value not exceeding 60 and those above 60 are detailed in Table 3.3. Pine Oil, Etc. The oil can also be stored longer than other vegetable oils. These have higher levels of oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 43–49% and 10–15% respectively, resulting in iodine values of 60–67 and with lower cloud points of about 2–5°C. 3. Palm oil has high contents of disaturated (POP and PPO) and monosaturated (POO and OPO) TAGs. (1999). Its fatty acid breakdown is 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% monounsaturated fatty acids and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fish oil in feeds for entire male and female pigs: changes in muscle fatty acid composition and stability of sensory quality. Saturated TAGs such as PPP, MPP and PPS are the seeds of crystallisation. of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan 20155, Indonesia Email: rondang@usu.ac.id. experimentally carried out the FA compositions of seven vegetable oils, including palm oil and sunflower oil, and reported that while palm oil contains 40–47% palmitic acid and 36–44% oleic acid, sunflower oil is made up of 49–57% linoleic and 14–40% oleic acids. Characteristics of Malaysian Palm Kernel and Its Products, Journal of Oil Palm Research Vol 25, 2013, Your email address will not be published. Palm Oil Commercial Specification and Quality, Follow Oil Palm Knowledge Base on WordPress.com. Although linked through supply chains, palm oil and PFAD are different renewable raw materials: palm oil is a crop-based vegetable oil whereas PFAD is a processing residue derived from the refining of food-grade palm oil for the food and chemical industry uses. [3], The USDA has published historical production figures for palm kernel oil for years beginning October 1 and ending September 30:[4]. The kernel oil is similar to coconut oil (CNO) in physical properties such as light in colour, sharp melting point and high in lauric (C12:0) and myristic (C14:0) fatty acids. Fractionation of PKO yields Palm Kernel Olein (PKL) and Palm Kernel Stearin (PKS). As the iodine value increases, the cloud point decreases, though not linearly. Porim's scientists work in oil palm tree breeding, palm oil nutrition and potential oleochemical use. CB – Cocoa Butter The fatty acid chains present in the palm oil triglycerides could vary in the number of carbons present in the chain (chain length) and in structure (presence of double bonds, i.e., unsaturation). [5] The Malaysian government also established Kolej Serdang, which became the Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (UPM) in the 1970s to train agricultural and agroindustrial engineers and agribusiness graduates to conduct research in the field. Fat Composition Analysis. Coconut oil is the highest natural source of lauric acid. “Palm oil” is extracted from the fruit pulp, while the kernel is used to extract “palm kernel oil”. elin.hallenstvedt@fkf.no Palm oil contains approximately 44% palmitic acid (saturated), 5% stearic acid (saturated), 39% oleic acid (monounsaturated), and 10% linoleic acid (polyunsaturated). The kernel oil is characterised by its high level of shorter and medium fatty acid chain lengths (C6–C14). in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. Required fields are marked *, 2. This outstanding property of lauric oils determines their use in the edible field and justifies their higher price compared with that of the other major oils. Department. Iodine Value (% I2absorbed) 22 Max. Palm Kernel Fatty Acid Distillate or commonly known as PKFAD, is a processing residue from crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) refineries with a high amount of free fatty acids. PO – Palm Oil Wilfarin fatty acids are derived from both Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil and are produced from the splitting of fats at high temperature and pressure. This composition results in an edible oil that is suitable for use in a variety of food applications. The higher the iodine and saponification value, hence the higher the fatty acid composition can be found for higher extraction for oleochemical plant. Vegetable Oil in Food Technology, Blackwell Publishing, 2012 Palm oil, like all fats, is composed of fatty acids, esterified with glycerol.Palm oil has an especially high concentration of saturated fat, specifically the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, to which it gives its name.Monounsaturated oleic acid is also a major constituent of palm oil. Palm oil has a balanced fatty acid composition in which the level of saturated fatty acids is almost equal to that of the unsaturated fatty acids (Table 1.1). Oil from the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis has long been recognized in West African countries. Indonesia and Malaysia. [clarification needed] B. C. Shekhar was appointed founder and chairman. Kernel: Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) Basic Facts • Kernel per fruit: 5-8% • Mesocarp per Fruit: 85-92% • Oil per mesocarp: 20-50% • Oil per bunch: 23-25% The iodine, refraction and saponification indexes, the melting point and the unsaponifiable matter content were within the range considered to be normal. The olein contains higher levels of oleic (39–45%) and linoleic acids (10–13%) compared to the palm oil. Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Wiley, 2005 4. Palm Oil : Production, Processing, Characterization and Uses, AOCS Press, 2012 [13][14], Resembling coconut oil, palm kernel oil is packed with myristic and lauric fatty acids and therefore suitable for the manufacture of soaps, washing powders and personal care products. This compares with a typical level of 26% for cocoa butter, which is the vegetable oil with the next highest palmitic fatty acid level. Products of iodine value around 33–35, previously only available through solvent fractionation, can now be produced from dry fractionation processes. PKS – Palm Kernel Stearin Palm kernel oil, which is semi-solid at room temperature, is more saturated than palm oil and comparable to coconut oil. X DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis:. Cuts or purer fatty acids in Europe, but then melts very abruptly below 30°C 25°C, then... Acid content should be below 35 %, for palm olein by palm kernel oil fatty acid composition olein. R Tambun, I a a Tarigan of linoleic acid and virtual absence linolenic! With high quality oil from Malaysia with an olein of iodine value not exceeding 60 and palm kernel oil fatty acid composition above are. Their low unsaturation, the lauric oils are also very stable to deterioration. 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